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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Main Pipe Flow Velocity on Leakage and Intrusion Flow: An Experimental Study

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
School of Civil, Environmental, and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010118
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
The classic orifice equation is commonly used to calculate the leakage and intrusion rate for pressurized pipelines with cracks on the pipe wall. The conventional orifice equation does not consider the effect of the flow velocity in the main pipe, and there is a lack of studies on this matter. For this technical note, the influence of the main pipe flow velocity on the outflow and inflow through a crack on the pipe wall was studied in the laboratory. The experimental results show that the impact of the main pipe flow velocity can be significant. When the pressure difference across the orifice was constant, with the increase of the main pipe flow velocity, the outflow velocity increased, but the contraction area of the jet and the outflow discharge coefficient decreased. By comparing orifices with different shapes, it was found that the discharge from the circumferential crack was most sensitive to the main pipe flow velocity. In addition, the main pipe flow promoted the orifice inflow. When the pressure difference across the orifice was constant, with the increase of the main pipe flow velocity, the inflow discharge coefficient increased, which is the opposite pattern to that of the orifice outflow. View Full-Text
Keywords: intrusion; orifice; pipe leakage; flow velocity; water distribution system intrusion; orifice; pipe leakage; flow velocity; water distribution system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shao, Y.; Yao, T.; Gong, J.; Liu, J.; Zhang, T.; Yu, T. Impact of Main Pipe Flow Velocity on Leakage and Intrusion Flow: An Experimental Study. Water 2019, 11, 118.

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