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Water 2018, 10(8), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080990

Spectroscopic Determination of Water Salinity in Brackish Surface Water in Nandoni Dam, at Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

1
Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Research Unit, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Florida, Johannesburg 1709, South Africa
2
Particle and Interfacial Technology Group, Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

The problem of limited water supply in the Vhembe District (Limpopo Province, South Africa) is exacerbated by a preponderance of dissolved salts, which cause disagreeable taste and odour in the water as reported by the communities using this water for drinking. The water treatment plant that supplies the treated water to the communities in the District sources this raw water from the Nandoni Dam at the Luvuvhu river catchment. There are no scientific studies that have been reported in the literature that focused on determining the levels of water salinity from various water sources in the municipalities of the District. Water samples from various sites across the Nandoni Dam, a primary source of domestic water supply in the region, were collected through each season over a period of twelve months in order to ascertain the concentrations of dissolved salts in the dam. Onsite analyses of the water samples were conducted using the YSI ProDSS multimeter, while the laboratory water analyses were conducted using the spectroquant and atomic absorption spectrometers. Although salinity tests seem to indicate that the water sampled across most of the Nandoni Dam is brackish during all seasons of the year with the highest being 750 mg/L, water samples from the dam mid-outlet and the treatment plant are slightly below the World Health Organization (WHO) brackish water bracket of 500 mg/L with unfavourable taste for drinking. Results from this study indicate that the water sourced from the Nandoni Dam is not suitable for human consumption and therefore requires integrated water resource management, as well as robust and cost-effective water desalination treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: contamination; domestic use; Nandoni Dam; salinity; water analysis contamination; domestic use; Nandoni Dam; salinity; water analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nthunya, L.N.; Maifadi, S.; Mamba, B.B.; Verliefde, A.R.; Mhlanga, S.D. Spectroscopic Determination of Water Salinity in Brackish Surface Water in Nandoni Dam, at Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Water 2018, 10, 990.

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