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Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Meteorological Elements in the North China District of China during 1960–2015

1
College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Yuan-Ming-Yuan West Road 2, Haidian, Beijing 100193, China
2
Key Laboratory of Farming system, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, Yuan-Ming-Yuan West Road 2, Haidian, Beijing 100193, China
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(6), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060789
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
The North China District (NCD) is one of the main grain production regions in China. The double cropping system of irrigation has been leading to the groundwater table decline at the speed of 1–2 m per year. Climate change leads to uncertainty surrounding the future of the NCD agricultural system, which will have great effects on crop yields and crop water demands. In this research, the Meteorological dataset from 54 weather station sites over the period 1960–2015 were collected to quantify the long-term spatial and temporal trends of meteorological data, including daily minimum temperature (Tmin), maximum temperature (Tmax), precipitation, solar radiation, reference evapotranspiration (ET0), and aridity index (AI). The results show that the long-term wheat and maize growing season and annual average air temperatures (Tmin and Tmax) showed strong north to south increasing trends throughout the NCD. The average annual precipitation was 632.9 mm across the NCD, more than 70% of which was concentrated in the maize growing season. The regional average annual ET0 was 1026.1 mm, which was 531.2 and 497.4 mm for the wheat and maize growing season, respectively. The regional precipitation decreased from northwest to southeast in each growing season and annual timescale. The funnel areas have lower precipitation and higher ET0 than the regional average, which may lead to the mining of the groundwater funnel area. The regional average annual AI is 0.63, which lies in the humid class. For temporal analysis, the regional average trends in annual Tmin, Tmax, solar radiation, ET0, precipitation, and AI were 0.37 °C/10a, 0.15 °C/10a, −0.28 MJ/day/m2/10a, −2.98 mm/10a, −12.04 mm/10a, and 0.005/10a, respectively. The increasing trend of temperature and the decreasing trend of solar radiation may have a negative effect on the regional food security. The funnel area AI showed a significant increasing trend for the winter wheat growing season and a decreasing trend for maize, which indicated that more irrigation will be needed for the maize growing season and the winter fallow policy may lead to the increasing trend precipitation being wasted. Analyzing the growing season and the annual meteorological elements of the spatiotemporal trends can help us better understand the influence of climate change on the natural resources and agricultural development in both the past and the future, and will provide us with invaluable information for the modification of cropping patterns to protect the regional and national water and food security. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; trend analysis; climate variables; water security; North China District climate change; trend analysis; climate variables; water security; North China District
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Ti, J.; Yang, Y.; Yin, X.; Liang, J.; Pu, L.; Jiang, Y.; Wen, X.; Chen, F. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Meteorological Elements in the North China District of China during 1960–2015. Water 2018, 10, 789.

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