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Value-Added Products Derived from Waste Activated Sludge: A Biorefinery Perspective

1
School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
2
Systems and Process Engineering Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
3
UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
4
School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
5
Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(5), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050545
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

Substantial research has been carried out on sustainable waste activated sludge (WAS) management in the last decade. In addition to the traditional approach to reduce its production volume, considering WAS as a feedstock to produce bio-products such as amino acids, proteins, short chain fatty acids, enzymes, bio-pesticides, bio-plastics, bio-flocculants and bio-surfactants represents a key component in the transformation of wastewater treatment plants into biorefineries. The quality of these bio-products is a key factor with respect to the feasibility of non-conventional WAS-based production processes. This review provides a critical assessment of the production process routes of a wide range of value-added products from WAS, their current limitations, and recommendations for future research to help promote more sustainable management of this under-utilised and ever-growing waste stream. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioplastics; biopolymers; biosolids; biorefinery; resource recovery; waste activated sludge bioplastics; biopolymers; biosolids; biorefinery; resource recovery; waste activated sludge
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Zhang, W.; Alvarez-Gaitan, J.P.; Dastyar, W.; Saint, C.P.; Zhao, M.; Short, M.D. Value-Added Products Derived from Waste Activated Sludge: A Biorefinery Perspective. Water 2018, 10, 545.

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