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Water 2018, 10(3), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030290

The Influence of Climate Variability Effects on Groundwater Time Series in the Lower Central Plains of Thailand

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand
2
Groundwater Research Center, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
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Abstract

This research studies the relationship between the climate index and the groundwater level of the lower Chao Phraya basin, in order to forecast the groundwater level in the studied area by using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Explanatory (ARIMAX). The combination of 6 climate indices—Dipole Mode Index, Indian Summer Monsoon Index, Multivariate ENSO Index, Sea Surface Temperature NINO4, Southern Oscillation Index and the Western North Pacific Monsoon Index—were used, along with the groundwater level data from 14 stations during the period 1980–2011 to develop the forecast model and verify it with the data of 2012.The first step was correlation of the ARIMA model with Autocorrelation Function and Partial Autocorrelation Function. The possible model was then selected using BIC statistics. Diagnostic Checking was done to consider the white noise characteristic of estimated residuals by using the statistics of Box and Ljung (Q-statistic). If the selected models were found to be proper, then the Granger Causality Test of the leading parameters or the climate index would be performed as the next step. The results show that there is a relationship between the groundwater level and the climate index. The model could be used to forecast effectively the average RMSE value at 0.6. The last step was to develop the MODFLOW for a conceptual model and synthesize groundwater levels in the study area, which covers around 43,000 km2 and has 8 layers of groundwater, with Bangkok clay on the top. All other boundary values were set to be steady. The calibration was done using the data of 325 observed wells. The normalized RMS value was 9.705%. The results were verified by the data using ARIMAX over the same time periods. To conclude, the simulated results of the monthly groundwater level in 2012 of the wells have a confidence interval of around 95%, which is near the result from the ARIMAX model. The advantages of the ARIMAX model include high accuracy, no requirement for a large amount of data and inexpensive implementation. It is one of the effective tools for the groundwater prediction. View Full-Text
Keywords: time series; climate variability; groundwater fluctuation; correlogram; ARIMAX model time series; climate variability; groundwater fluctuation; correlogram; ARIMAX model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Taweesin, K.; Seeboonruang, U.; Saraphirom, P. The Influence of Climate Variability Effects on Groundwater Time Series in the Lower Central Plains of Thailand. Water 2018, 10, 290.

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