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Water 2018, 10(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020111

Streambank Alluvial Unit Contributions to Suspended Sediment and Total Phosphorus Loads, Walnut Creek, Iowa, USA

1
Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Iowa State University, 2310 Pammel Dr., Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Iowa Geological Survey, University of Iowa, 340A Trowbridge Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
3
National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 2110 University Boulevard, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Streambank Erosion: Monitoring, Modeling and Management)
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Abstract

Streambank erosion may represent a significant source of sediment and phosphorus (P) to overall watershed loads; however, watershed-scale quantification of contributions is rare. In addition, streambanks are often comprised of highly variable stratigraphic source materials (e.g., alluvial deposits), which may differentially impact in-channel P dynamics once eroded. The objective of this study was to quantify sediment and total phosphorus (TP) losses from four materials comprising streambanks within a 5218 ha watershed in Iowa, USA. Streambank-face surveys, erosion pins, and soil analyses were used to quantify surface area representation, recession, and losses of sediment and TP over a two-year period. Cumulative, whole-bank gross mean recession totaled 18.6 cm over two years, and material-specific gross mean recession ranged from 15.5 to 64.1 cm. Cumulative, whole-bank mean gross mass losses totaled 0.28 Mg sediment and 0.7 × 10−5 Mg TP per meter channel length. Annual sediment losses equated to 4–44% of historic suspended sediment loads. Stratigraphy was significant in gross material erosion and losses, with lower materials (i.e., bank toe region) exhibiting the greatest recession rates and cumulative recession. Weathered/colluvial material dominated total bank face surface area (88.3%), and contributed the greatest proportion of sediment and TP mass loss (66, 68%, respectively) versus other streambank materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: streambank erosion; phosphorus; sediment; water quality; watershed streambank erosion; phosphorus; sediment; water quality; watershed
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Beck, W.; Isenhart, T.; Moore, P.; Schilling, K.; Schultz, R.; Tomer, M. Streambank Alluvial Unit Contributions to Suspended Sediment and Total Phosphorus Loads, Walnut Creek, Iowa, USA. Water 2018, 10, 111.

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