Next Article in Journal
Stagnant Rivers: Transboundary Water Security in South and Southeast Asia
Next Article in Special Issue
Recent Research Results on Groundwater Resources and Saltwater Intrusion in a Changing Environment
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of Soil Erosion Dynamics Using the GIS-Based RUSLE Model: A Case Study of Wangjiagou Watershed from the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Southwestern China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Groundwater Extraction Scenarios on Fresh Groundwater Resources in the Nile Delta Governorates, Egypt
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Quantification of Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Gaza Strip

1
Environmental Affairs and MIS Departments, Gaza Strip, Palestine
2
Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S8, 9000 Gent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(12), 1818; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121818
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
  |  
PDF [4456 KB, uploaded 10 December 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Gaza Strip has suffered from seawater intrusion during the past three decades due to low rainfall and high abstraction from the groundwater resource. On a yearly basis, more than 170 million m3 of groundwater is abstracted, while the long-term average recharge from rainfall is 24.4 million m3/year. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has never been studied in the Gaza Strip, due to lack of experience in this field, next to the ignorance of this subject due to the seawater intrusion process taking place. Continuous radon measurements were carried out in six sites along the Gaza Strip to quantify the SGD rate. The final result shows SGD to occur in all sampled sites. The range of SGD rates varies from 0.9 to 5.9 cm·day−1. High values of SGD are found in the south (Rafah and Khan Younis governorates). The high values are probably related to the shallow unconfined aquifer, while the lowest values of SGD are found in the middle of Gaza Strip, and they are probably related to the Sabkha formation. In the north of Gaza Strip, SGD values are in the range of 1.0 to 2.0 cm·day−1. Considering that SGD would occur with the measured rates in a strip of 100 m wide along the whole coast line, the results in a quantity of 38 million m3 of groundwater being discharged yearly to the Mediterranean Sea along Gaza coast. Nutrient samples were taken along Gaza Strip coastline, and they were compared to the onshore wells, 600 m away from the Mediterranean Sea. The results show that SGD has higher NO3 + NO2 than nutrient-poor seawater, and that it is close to the onshore results from the wells. This confirms that the source of SGD is groundwater, and not shallow seawater circulation. In a coastal strip of 100 m wide along the Gaza coast, a yearly discharge of over 400 tons of nitrate and 250 tons of ammonium occurs from groundwater to the Mediterranean Sea. View Full-Text
Keywords: SGD; SGD model; Radon; coastal aquifer; nutrient discharge; Gaza Strip SGD; SGD model; Radon; coastal aquifer; nutrient discharge; Gaza Strip
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mushtaha, A.M.; Walraevens, K. Quantification of Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Gaza Strip. Water 2018, 10, 1818.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top