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Open AccessArticle

Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Groundwater Extraction Scenarios on Fresh Groundwater Resources in the Nile Delta Governorates, Egypt

1
Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Nile Water Sector, P.O. Box 11471, 11728 Cairo, Egypt
2
IHE Delft, Department of Integrated Water Systems and Governance, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands
3
Deltares, Unit of Subsurface and Groundwater Systems, Daltonlaan 600, 3584 BK Utrecht, The Netherlands
4
Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CB Utrecht, The Netherlands
5
Water Resources Section, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands
6
World Water Assessment Programme, UNESCO, Villa La Colombella, Colombella Alta, 06134 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(11), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111690
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
As Egypt’s population increases, the demand for fresh groundwater extraction will intensify. Consequently, the groundwater quality will deteriorate, including an increase in salinization. On the other hand, salinization caused by saltwater intrusion in the coastal Nile Delta Aquifer (NDA) is also threatening the groundwater resources. The aim of this article is to assess the situation in 2010 (since this is when most data is sufficiently available) regarding the available fresh groundwater resources and to evaluate future salinization in the NDA using a 3D variable-density groundwater flow model coupled with salt transport that was developed with SEAWAT. This is achieved by examining six future scenarios that combine two driving forces: increased extraction and sea level rise (SLR). Given the prognosis of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), the scenarios are used to assess the impact of groundwater extraction versus SLR on the seawater intrusion in the Delta and evaluate their contributions to increased groundwater salinization. The results show that groundwater extraction has a greater impact on salinization of the NDA than SLR, while the two factors combined cause the largest reduction of available fresh groundwater resources. The significant findings of this research are the determination of the groundwater volumes of fresh water, brackish, light brackish and saline water in the NDA as a whole and in each governorate and the identification of the governorates that are most vulnerable to salinization. It is highly recommended that the results of this analysis are considered in future mitigation and/or adaptation plans. View Full-Text
Keywords: saltwater intrusion; sea level rise; Nile Delta aquifer; fresh groundwater volume; extraction; Nile Delta governorates saltwater intrusion; sea level rise; Nile Delta aquifer; fresh groundwater volume; extraction; Nile Delta governorates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mabrouk, M.; Jonoski, A.; H. P. Oude Essink, G.; Uhlenbrook, S. Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Groundwater Extraction Scenarios on Fresh Groundwater Resources in the Nile Delta Governorates, Egypt. Water 2018, 10, 1690. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111690

AMA Style

Mabrouk M, Jonoski A, H. P. Oude Essink G, Uhlenbrook S. Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Groundwater Extraction Scenarios on Fresh Groundwater Resources in the Nile Delta Governorates, Egypt. Water. 2018; 10(11):1690. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111690

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mabrouk, Marmar; Jonoski, Andreja; H. P. Oude Essink, Gualbert; Uhlenbrook, Stefan. 2018. "Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Groundwater Extraction Scenarios on Fresh Groundwater Resources in the Nile Delta Governorates, Egypt" Water 10, no. 11: 1690. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111690

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