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A Support Vector Machine Forecasting Model for Typhoon Flood Inundation Mapping and Early Flood Warning Systems

1
Research Center of Climate Change and Sustainable Development, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
2
Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
3
Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
4
Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
5
Center for Weather Climate and Disaster Research, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(12), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121734
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
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Abstract

Accurate real-time forecasts of inundation depth and extent during typhoon flooding are crucial to disaster emergency response. To manage disaster risk, the development of a flood inundation forecasting model has been recognized as essential. In this paper, a forecasting model by integrating a hydrodynamic model, k-means clustering algorithm and support vector machines (SVM) is proposed. The task of this study is divided into four parts. First, the SOBEK model is used in simulating inundation hydrodynamics. Second, the k-means clustering algorithm classifies flood inundation data and identifies the dominant clusters of flood gauging stations. Third, SVM yields water level forecasts with 1–3 h lead time. Finally, a spatial expansion module produces flood inundation maps, based on forecasted information from flood gauging stations and consideration of flood causative factors. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed forecasting model, we present an application to the Yilan River basin, Taiwan. The forecasting results indicate that the simulated water level forecasts from the point forecasting module are in good agreement with the observed data, and the proposed model yields the accurate flood inundation maps for 1–3 h lead time. These results indicate that the proposed model accurately forecasts not only flood inundation depth but also inundation extent. This flood inundation forecasting model is expected to be useful in providing early flood warning information for disaster emergency response. View Full-Text
Keywords: early flood warning; disaster risk; k-means clustering algorithm; support vector machine; flood inundation forecasting; flood inundation map early flood warning; disaster risk; k-means clustering algorithm; support vector machine; flood inundation forecasting; flood inundation map
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chang, M.-J.; Chang, H.-K.; Chen, Y.-C.; Lin, G.-F.; Chen, P.-A.; Lai, J.-S.; Tan, Y.-C. A Support Vector Machine Forecasting Model for Typhoon Flood Inundation Mapping and Early Flood Warning Systems. Water 2018, 10, 1734.

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