Hydraulic conductivity (K) is crucial for groundwater studies and is conventionally obtained through pumping tests, which are costly due to well installation, resulting in a limited amount of data. Recent studies have addressed this limitation by estimating K through the integration of a pumping-test K and electrical resistivity measurements. While this approach is suitable for local areas, it cannot readily be applied to determine K fields for the composite fan delta. This study proposes and demonstrates an advanced method to estimate the K’s spatial distribution of a composite fan delta. The proposed method included data classification, linear regression, and kriging interpolation. Data classification was conducted using a physical-based zonation method. The K and formation factor (F) data pairs were classified into several groups. Linear regression was used to develop K-F mapping for each group. The regression results showed a good correlation between K and F in each group. These K-F mappings were verified by additional pumping tests. These results indicate that estimation errors were between 7 m/day and 58 m/day, and the correlation coefficient of each data group was greater than 0.8. Based on these regression equations and ordinary kriging method, the detailed K spatial distribution of the study area was derived. According to these results, the proposed method is efficient and economical to delineate K’s spatial features for regional groundwater systems and can benefit groundwater-related studies.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited