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Open AccessArticle

Benzotriazole Uptake and Removal in Vegetated Biofilter Mesocosms Planted with Carex praegracilis

1
NSF Engineering Research Center for Re-inventing the Nation’s Urban Water Infrastructure (ReNUWIt), Stanford, CA 94305, USA
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(11), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111605
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant and Microbial Processes in Stormwater Treatment Systems)
Urban stormwater runoff is a significant source of pollutants in surface water bodies. One such pollutant, 1H-benzotriazole, is a persistent, recalcitrant trace organic contaminant commonly used as a corrosion inhibitor in airplane deicing processes, automobile liquids, and engine coolants. This study explored the removal of 1H-benzotriazole from stormwater using bench-scale biofilter mesocosms planted with California native sedge, Carex praegracilis, over a series of three storm events and succeeding monitoring period. Benzotriazole metabolites glycosylated benzotriazole and benzotriazole alanine were detected and benzotriazole and glycosylated benzotriazole partitioning in the system were quantified. With a treatment length of seven days, 97.1% of benzotriazole was removed from stormwater effluent from vegetated biofilter mesocosms. Significant concentrations of benzotriazole and glycosylated benzotriazole were observed in the C. praegracilis leaf and root tissue. Additionally, a significant missing sink of benzotriazole developed in the vegetated biofilter mesocosms. This study suggests that vegetation may increase the operating lifespan of bioretention basins by enhancing the degradation of dissolved trace organic contaminants, thus increasing the sorption capacity of the geomedia. View Full-Text
Keywords: benzotriazole; biofilter; bioretention basin; green infrastructure; phytotransformation; sorption; stormwater; trace organic contaminants benzotriazole; biofilter; bioretention basin; green infrastructure; phytotransformation; sorption; stormwater; trace organic contaminants
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Pritchard, J.C.; Cho, Y.-M.; Ashoori, N.; Wolfand, J.M.; Sutton, J.D.; Carolan, M.E.; Gamez, E.; Doan, K.; Wiley, J.S.; Luthy, R.G. Benzotriazole Uptake and Removal in Vegetated Biofilter Mesocosms Planted with Carex praegracilis. Water 2018, 10, 1605.

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