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Distribution and Genotyping of Aquatic Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Puzi River and Its Tributaries Near Areas of Livestock Farming

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
Department of Psychiatry, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien 970, Taiwan
Department of Internal Medicine, Cheng Hsin Hospital, Taipei 111, Taiwan
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan
Department of Biotechnology, Xiamen Ocean Vocational College, Xiamen 361000, China
Fisheries College, Jimei University, Xiamen 361000, China
Department of Laboratory, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
General Surgery, Surgical Department, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei 111, Taiwan
Center for Innovative on Aging Society (CIRAS), National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Ming-Yuan Chou, Yi-Jia Shih, Tung-Yi Huang and Pei-Yu Yang have equal contributions to the first author.
Water 2018, 10(10), 1374;
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters)
PDF [1938 KB, uploaded 1 October 2018]


Acinetobacter baumannii is an important health care-associated bacterium and a common multidrug-resistant pathogen. The use of antibiotics in the husbandry industry has raised concerns about drug-resistant A. baumannii strains, which may affect humans. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal distribution of A. baumannii in aquatic environments near areas of livestock farming. The geographic distribution, antibiotic resistance characteristic, and DNA fingerprinting genotype of A. baumannii were also studied. The results showed that environmental A. baumannii was prevalent during the summer and autumn. The hotspots for A. baumannii were found at the sampling sites of livestock wastewater channels (21.4%; 3/14) and the tributaries adjacent to livestock farms (15.4%; 2/13). The prevalence of A. baumannii at these locations was significantly higher than those adjacent to the Puzi River. Multidrug-resistant strain of A. baumannii was not found in this study, with only one strain (5%; 1/20) being resistant to tetracycline. Of the isolates that were obtained, 10% (2/20) and 20% (4/20) were found to be intermediately resistant to tetracycline and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively. The genotyping patterns and clustering analysis indicated that enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) differentiated A. baumannii strains effectively. There were two major clusters that could then be subtyped into 20 A. baumannii strains with 15 profiles. The A. baumannii strains that were isolated from upstream of the Puzi River and livestock wastewater channels were composed of Cluster I. Cluster II only contained isolates from downstream of the Puzi River area. Furthermore, isolates from adjacent sites were shown to have identical profiles (100%). These results suggest that A. baumannii may have spread through free-flowing water in this study. Therefore, we propose that livestock wastewater is one of the sources that contribute to A. baumannii pollution in water bodies. In summary, continuous monitoring of antibiotic pollution in livestock wastewater is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; antibiotic-resistant strains; aquatic environment; ERIC-PCR Acinetobacter baumannii; antibiotic-resistant strains; aquatic environment; ERIC-PCR

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Tsai, H.-C.; Chou, M.-Y.; Shih, Y.-J.; Huang, T.-Y.; Yang, P.-Y.; Chiu, Y.-C.; Chen, J.-S.; Hsu, B.-M. Distribution and Genotyping of Aquatic Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Puzi River and Its Tributaries Near Areas of Livestock Farming. Water 2018, 10, 1374.

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