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Water 2018, 10(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010042

Performance of Iron Plaque of Wetland Plants for Regulating Iron, Manganese, and Phosphorus from Agricultural Drainage Water

1
Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Wet Ecosystem Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105-6050, USA
4
Jilin Provincical Joint Key Laboratory of Changbai Mountain Wetland and Ecology, Changchun 130102, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water)
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Abstract

Agricultural drainage water continues to impact watersheds and their receiving water bodies. One approach to mitigate this problem is to use surrounding natural wetlands. Our objectives were to determine the effect of iron (Fe)-rich groundwater on phosphorus (P) removal and nutrient absorption by the utilization of the iron plaque on the root surface of Glyceria spiculosa (Fr. Schmidt.) Rosh. The experiment was comprised of two main factors with three regimes: Fe2+ (0, 1, 20, 100, 500 mg·L−1) and P (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 mg·L−1). The deposition and structure of iron plaque was examined through a scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. Iron could, however, also impose toxic effects on the biota. We therefore provide the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on iron plaques, showing the essential elements were iron (Fe), oxygen (O), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), P, and sulphur (S). Results showed that (1) Iron plaque increased with increasing Fe2+ supply, and P-deficiency promoted its formation; (2) Depending on the amount of iron plaque on roots, nutrient uptake was enhanced at low levels, but at higher levels, it inhibited element accumulation and translocation; (3) The absorption of manganese was particularly affected by iron plague, which also enhanced phosphorus uptake until the external iron concentration exceeded 100 mg·L−1. Therefore, the presence of iron plaque on the root surface would increase the uptake of P, which depends on the concentration of iron-rich groundwater. View Full-Text
Keywords: wetlands; agricultural drainage water; iron plague; phosphorus; manganese wetlands; agricultural drainage water; iron plague; phosphorus; manganese
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Jia, X.; Otte, M.L.; Liu, Y.; Qin, L.; Tian, X.; Lu, X.; Jiang, M.; Zou, Y. Performance of Iron Plaque of Wetland Plants for Regulating Iron, Manganese, and Phosphorus from Agricultural Drainage Water. Water 2018, 10, 42.

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