Next Article in Journal
A Comparison between 3DVAR and EnKF for Data Assimilation Effects on the Yellow Sea Fog Forecast
Previous Article in Journal
How Sea Fog Influences Inland Visibility on the Southern China Coast
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 345;

Numerical Study on the Effect of Urbanization and Coastal Change on Sea Breeze over Qingdao, China

College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [11897 KB, uploaded 4 September 2018]   |  


During the past few decades, rapid economic development occurred in Qingdao. Inevitably, human activities have caused great changes to the underlying surface, including urbanization and coastal change. Coastal change mainly refers to the expansion of the coastline to increase coastal land area. Sea-land breeze (SLB) is important for local weather and the transport of air pollutant. However, the impact of human activities on the SLB over Qingdao is not yet clear. Thus, the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model is applied to study the effect of urbanization and coastal change on SLB. The study shows that urbanization strengthens the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Due to the expansions of urban area during past decades, sea breeze is strengthened before it passes through the urban areas. When it penetrates into the city, the inland progress of sea breeze is slowed down due to the UHI effect and stronger frictional force. Besides, the expansions of coastline can delay the SLB conversion time, lead to the changes in the sea breeze penetration path and the weakening of SLB intensity. View Full-Text
Keywords: urbanization; coastal change; numerical simulation; sea-land breeze urbanization; coastal change; numerical simulation; sea-land breeze

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hai, S.; Miao, Y.; Sheng, L.; Wei, L.; Chen, Q. Numerical Study on the Effect of Urbanization and Coastal Change on Sea Breeze over Qingdao, China. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 345.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top