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Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080324

Analysis on the Extreme Sea Levels Changes along the Coastline of Bohai Sea, China

1
National Marine Data & Information Service, Tianjin 300171, China
2
Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266000, China
3
Function Laboratory for Ocean Dynamics and Climate, National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storms, Jets and Other Meteorological Phenomena in Coastal Seas)
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Abstract

Using hourly sea level data from four tide gauges, the changes of the extreme sea level in the Bohai Sea were analyzed in this work. Three components (i.e., mean sea level, tide and surge) as well as the tide–surge interaction were studied to find which component was important in the changes of extreme sea levels. Significant increasing trends exist in the mean sea level at four tide gauges from 1980 to 2016, and the increase rate ranges from 0.2 to 0.5 cm/year. The mean high tide levels show positive trends at four tide gauges, and the increasing rate (0.1 to 0.3 cm/year) is not small compared with the long-term trends of the mean sea levels. However, the mean tidal ranges show negative trends at Longkou, Qinhuangdao and Tanggu, with the rate from about −0.7 to −0.2 cm/year. At Qinhuangdao and Tanggu, the annual surge intensity shows explicit long-term decreasing trend. At all four tide gauges, the storm surge intensity shows distinct inter-annual variability and decadal variability. All four tide gauges show significant tide–surge interaction, the characteristics of the tide–surge interaction differ due to their locations, and no clear long-term change was found. Convincing evidence implies that the extreme sea levels increase during the past decades from 1980 to 2016 at all tide gauges, with the increasing rate differing at different percentile levels. The extreme sea level changes in the Bohai Sea are highly affected by the changes of mean sea level and high tide level, especially the latter. The surge variation contributes to the changes of extreme sea level at locations where the tide–surge interaction is relatively weak. View Full-Text
Keywords: extreme sea level; Bohai; mean sea level; storm surge; tide-surge interaction extreme sea level; Bohai; mean sea level; storm surge; tide-surge interaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Feng, J.; Li, D.; Wang, H.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.; Liu, K. Analysis on the Extreme Sea Levels Changes along the Coastline of Bohai Sea, China. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 324.

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