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Article

Freezing on a Chip—A New Approach to Determine Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Micrometer-Sized Water Droplets

1
Institute of Materials Chemistry, TU Wien, 1060 Vienna, Austria
2
Aerosol Physics and Environmental Physics, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2018, 9(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040140
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ice Nucleation in the Atmosphere)
We are presenting a new approach to analyze the freezing behavior of aqueous droplets containing ice nucleating particles. The freezing chip consists of an etched and sputtered (15 × 15 × 1) mm gold-plated silicon or pure gold chip, enabling the formation of droplets with defined diameters between 20 and 80 µm. Several applications like an automated process control and an automated image evaluation were implemented to improve the quality of heterogeneous freezing experiments. To show the functionality of the setup, we compared freezing temperatures of aqueous droplets containing ice nucleating particles (i.e., microcline, birch pollen washing water, juniper pollen, and Snomax® solution) measured with our setup, with literature data. The ice nucleation active surface/mass site density (ns/m) of microcline, juniper pollen, and birch pollen washing water are shown to be in good agreement with literature data. Minor variations can be explained by slight differences in composition and droplet generation technique. The nm values of Snomax® differ by up to one order of magnitude at higher subzero temperatures when compared with fresh samples but are in agreement when compared with reported data of aged Snomax® samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: new instrument; micrometer droplets; ice nucleation; ice nucleation particle; immersion freezing new instrument; micrometer droplets; ice nucleation; ice nucleation particle; immersion freezing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Häusler, T.; Witek, L.; Felgitsch, L.; Hitzenberger, R.; Grothe, H. Freezing on a Chip—A New Approach to Determine Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Micrometer-Sized Water Droplets. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040140

AMA Style

Häusler T, Witek L, Felgitsch L, Hitzenberger R, Grothe H. Freezing on a Chip—A New Approach to Determine Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Micrometer-Sized Water Droplets. Atmosphere. 2018; 9(4):140. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040140

Chicago/Turabian Style

Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich. 2018. "Freezing on a Chip—A New Approach to Determine Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Micrometer-Sized Water Droplets" Atmosphere 9, no. 4: 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040140

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