Next Article in Journal
Air Pollution Monitoring in the south-east baltic using the epiphytic lichen hypogymnia physodes
Next Article in Special Issue
Decadal Spatial-Temporal Variations in the Spatial Pattern of Anomalies of Extreme Precipitation Thresholds (Case Study: Northwest Iran)
Previous Article in Journal
Increasing Heatwave Hazards in the Southeastern European Union Capitals
Previous Article in Special Issue
Future Changes in Global Precipitation Projected by the Atmospheric Model MRI-AGCM3.2H with a 60-km Size
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Impacts of Atmospheric Moisture Transportation on Warm Sector Torrential Rains over South China

Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Numerical Weather Prediction, China Meteorological Administration, No.312 Dongguanzhuang Road, Tianhe, Guangzhou 510507, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2017, 8(7), 116;
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Precipitation with Climate Change)
PDF [8599 KB, uploaded 4 July 2017]


Warm Sector Torrential Rains (WSTRs) occurring during the outbreak of the monsoon in May of 2015 in South China were studied using surface automatic weather observational data, sounding, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis interim Data (ERA-interim), satellite and radar data, and a four-level nested grid simulation with the finest grid spacing of 1 km using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The results show that the extreme precipitation event, which had maximum rainfall amounts of 406.3 mm in 10 h and 542.2 mm in 24 h on 20 May 2015, and was characterized by its rapid development and its highly concentrated and long duration of heavy rainfall, occurred over the trumpet-shaped topography of Haifeng. The simulation results indicated that the South China Sea (SCS) atmospheric moisture transportation (AMT) was crucial in triggering the precipitation of the WSTR over South China. The simulation of the WSTR was conducted by using the total energy-mass flux scheme (TEMF), which provided a reasonable simulation of the circulation and the vertical profile in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) as well as the estimation of the precipitation. The AMT, which extends from the Beibu Gulf and the South China Sea to the coastal areas and provides Shanwei with a considerable amount of moisture in the boundary layer, and the effects within the PBL, which include orographic effects, an extra low-level jet, and a high-energy tongue characterized by a high-potential pseudo-equivalent temperature tongue with a warm and moist southwesterly wind, were the important large-scale factors causing the WSTR. View Full-Text
Keywords: warm sector; topography; boundary layer; low-level jet warm sector; topography; boundary layer; low-level jet

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhong, S.; Chen, Z. The Impacts of Atmospheric Moisture Transportation on Warm Sector Torrential Rains over South China. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 116.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top