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Open AccessArticle

The Impact of Kelvin Wave Activity during Dry and Wet African Summer Rainfall Years

1
Department of Physics, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
2
North Carolina Institute for Climate Studies (NCICS), North Carolina State University, Asheville, NC 28801, USA
3
Applied Science and Technology PhD Program, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060568
Received: 6 April 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 21 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
This study highlights the influence of convectively coupled Kelvin wave (KW) activity on deep convection and African easterly waves (AEWs) over North Africa during dry and wet boreal summer rainfall years. Composite analysis based on 25 years of rainfall, satellite observed cold cloud temperature, and reanalysis data sets show that KWs are more frequent and stronger in dry Central African years compared with wet years. Deep convection associated with KWs is slightly more amplified in dry years compared with wet years. Further, KW activity over North Africa strengthens the lower level zonal flow and deepens the zonal moisture flux in dry years compared with wet years. Results also show that enhanced KW convection is in phase with above-average AEW variance in dry years. However, enhanced KW convection is out-of-phase with average AEW activity in wet years. In general, this study suggests that KW passage over Africa enhances convective activity and more strongly modulates the monsoon flow and moisture flux during the dry years than wet years. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kelvin waves; African easterly waves; African summer monsoon Kelvin waves; African easterly waves; African summer monsoon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mekonnen, A.; Schreck, C.J., III; Enyew, B.D. The Impact of Kelvin Wave Activity during Dry and Wet African Summer Rainfall Years. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 568. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060568

AMA Style

Mekonnen A, Schreck CJ III, Enyew BD. The Impact of Kelvin Wave Activity during Dry and Wet African Summer Rainfall Years. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(6):568. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060568

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mekonnen, Ademe; Schreck, Carl J., III; Enyew, Bantwale D. 2020. "The Impact of Kelvin Wave Activity during Dry and Wet African Summer Rainfall Years" Atmosphere 11, no. 6: 568. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060568

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