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Open AccessArticle

The Collective Contribution of Atmospheric and Oceanic Components to ENSO Asymmetry

1
State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
3
Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center of Earth System Science (CESS), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
4
School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080469
Received: 21 July 2019 / Revised: 11 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Abstract

Four cross-coupled models were used to investigate the relative contributions of atmospheric and oceanic components to the asymmetry of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Strong El Niño and La Niña events related to the negative heat flux feedbacks were found to be determined mainly by the atmospheric component, and the stronger sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the warm phase did not lead to an increased SST asymmetry. The skewness of the four models could be affected by both atmospheric and oceanic components; the atmospheric component determines the strength of positive and negative SST anomalies, and the oceanic component affects the strength of the negative SST anomalies in the cold phase under the same atmospheric component group. The Bjerknes stability index (BJ index) of warm and cold phases contributed to the El Niño–La Niña SSTA asymmetries in observation, but the BJ index did not necessarily explain the El Niño–La Niña SSTA asymmetries in climate model simulations. The SST asymmetries in these four models were closely associated with convective precipitation and wind stress asymmetries, which are also determined by both the atmospheric and oceanic components. View Full-Text
Keywords: ENSO asymmetry; cross-coupled models; heat flux; convective precipitation; zonal wind stress ENSO asymmetry; cross-coupled models; heat flux; convective precipitation; zonal wind stress
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Tang, Y.; Li, L.; Wang, B.; Lin, P.; Dong, W.; Xia, K. The Collective Contribution of Atmospheric and Oceanic Components to ENSO Asymmetry. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 469.

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