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Genes 2018, 9(6), 282;

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Glyptothorax macromaculatus Provides a Well-Resolved Molecular Phylogeny of the Chinese Sisorid Catfishes

BGI Education Center, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518083, China
Shenzhen Key Lab of Marine Genomics, Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Molecular Breeding in Marine Economic Animals, BGI Academy of Marine Sciences, BGI Marine, BGI, Shenzhen 518083, China
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
Laboratory of Aquatic Genomics, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Previous phylogenetic analyses of the Chinese sisorid catfishes have either been poorly resolved or have not included all the 12 sisorid genera. Here, we successfully assembled the first complete mitochondrial genome of the sisorid fish Glyptothorax macromaculatus. Based on this novel mitochondrial genome and previously published mitochondrial genomes in the Sisoridae, we generated maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies. We dated our preferred topology using fossil calibration points. We also tested the protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genomes of the glyptosternoid fishes for signals of natural selection by comparing the nucleotide substitution rate along the branch ancestral to the glyptosternoid fishes to other branches in our topology. The mitochondrial sequence structure of G. macromaculatus was similar to those known from other vertebrates, with some slight differences. Our sisorid phylogenies were well-resolved and well-supported, with exact congruence between the different phylogenetic methods. This robust phylogeny clarified the relationships among the Chinese sisorid genera and strongly supported the division of the family into three main clades. Interestingly, the glyptosternoid divergence time predicted by our molecular dating analysis coincided with the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, suggesting that geology may have influenced speciation in the Sisoridae. Among the mitochondrial protein-coding genes, atp8 may have most rapidly evolved, and atp6 may have been subjected to positive selection pressure to adapt to high elevations. In summary, this study provided novel insights into the phylogeny, evolution and high-altitude adaptions of the Chinese sisorid fishes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sisoridae; mitochondrial genome; evolution; selection; high-elevation adaption Sisoridae; mitochondrial genome; evolution; selection; high-elevation adaption

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Lv, Y.; Li, Y.; Ruan, Z.; Bian, C.; You, X.; Yang, J.; Jiang, W.; Shi, Q. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Glyptothorax macromaculatus Provides a Well-Resolved Molecular Phylogeny of the Chinese Sisorid Catfishes. Genes 2018, 9, 282.

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