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The Oncojanus Paradigm of Respiratory Complex I

1
Dipartimento di Farmacia e Biotecnologie (FaBit), Univeristà di Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche (DIMEC), Università di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
3
Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca Industriale (CIRI) Scienze della Vita e Tecnologie per la Salute, Università di Bologna, 40100 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2018, 9(5), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9050243
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
Mitochondrial respiratory function is now recognized as a pivotal player in all the aspects of cancer biology, from tumorigenesis to aggressiveness and chemotherapy resistance. Among the enzymes that compose the respiratory chain, by contributing to energy production, redox equilibrium and oxidative stress, complex I assumes a central role. Complex I defects may arise from mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA, in both structural genes or assembly factors, from alteration of the expression levels of its subunits, or from drug exposure. Since cancer cells have a high-energy demand and require macromolecules for proliferation, it is not surprising that severe complex I defects, caused either by mutations or treatment with specific inhibitors, prevent tumor progression, while contributing to resistance to certain chemotherapeutic agents. On the other hand, enhanced oxidative stress due to mild complex I dysfunction drives an opposite phenotype, as it stimulates cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness. We here review the current knowledge on the contribution of respiratory complex I to cancer biology, highlighting the double-edged role of this metabolic enzyme in tumor progression, metastasis formation, and response to chemotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: respiratory complex I; mtDNA; mitochondria; mtDNA mutations; cancer; tumor progression; oncojanus respiratory complex I; mtDNA; mitochondria; mtDNA mutations; cancer; tumor progression; oncojanus
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Leone, G.; Abla, H.; Gasparre, G.; Porcelli, A.M.; Iommarini, L. The Oncojanus Paradigm of Respiratory Complex I. Genes 2018, 9, 243.

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