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Genes 2018, 9(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9040205

Portrait of Matrix Gene Expression in Candida glabrata Biofilms with Stress Induced by Different Drugs

Laboratório de Investigação em Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira (LIBRO), Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogenesis in Humans: The Growing Threat)
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Abstract

(1) Background: Candida glabrata is one of the most significant Candida species associated with severe cases of candidiasis. Biofilm formation is an important feature, closely associated with antifungal resistance, involving alterations of gene expression or mutations, which can result in the failure of antifungal treatments. Hence, the main goal of this work was to evaluate the role of a set of genes, associated with matrix production, in the resistance of C. glabrata biofilms to antifungal drugs. (2) Methods: the determination of the expression of BGL2, XOG1, FKS1, FKS2, GAS2, KNH1, UGP1, and MNN2 genes in 48-h biofilm’s cells of three C. glabrata strains was performed through quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), after contact with Fluconazole (Flu), Amphotericin B (AmB), Caspofungin (Csf), or Micafungin (Mcf). (3) Results: Mcf induced a general overexpression of the selected genes. It was verified that the genes related to the production of β-1,3-glucans (BGL2, XOG1, GAS2) had the highest expressions. (4) Conclusion: though β-1,6-glucans and mannans are an essential part of the cell and biofilm matrix, C. glabrata biofilm cells seem to contribute more to the replacement of β-1,3-glucans. Thus, these biopolymers seem to have a greater impact on the biofilm matrix composition and, consequently, a role in the biofilm resistance to antifungal drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida; biofilms; matrix; drug resistance; gene expression; Candida glabrata Candida; biofilms; matrix; drug resistance; gene expression; Candida glabrata
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Rodrigues, C.F.; Henriques, M. Portrait of Matrix Gene Expression in Candida glabrata Biofilms with Stress Induced by Different Drugs. Genes 2018, 9, 205.

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