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Genes 2017, 8(12), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes8120387

NAD1 Controls Defense-Like Responses in Medicago truncatula Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixing Nodules Following Rhizobial Colonization in a BacA-Independent Manner

1
National Agricultural and Innovation Center, Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
2
Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Center, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
3
Institute of Genetics, Biological Research Center, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
4
Cellular Imaging Laboratory, Biological Research Center, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
5
Department of Plant Anatomy, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
6
Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay IPS2, CNRS, INRA, Université Paris-Sud, Université Evry, Université Paris-Saclay, Bâtiment 630, 91405 Orsay, France
7
Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay IPS2, Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris-Cité, Bâtiment 630, 91405 Orsay, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of the Rhizobium-Legume Symbiosis)
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Abstract

Legumes form endosymbiotic interaction with host compatible rhizobia, resulting in the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Within symbiotic nodules, rhizobia are intracellularly accommodated in plant-derived membrane compartments, termed symbiosomes. In mature nodule, the massively colonized cells tolerate the existence of rhizobia without manifestation of visible defense responses, indicating the suppression of plant immunity in the nodule in the favur of the symbiotic partner. Medicago truncatula DNF2 (defective in nitrogen fixation 2) and NAD1 (nodules with activated defense 1) genes are essential for the control of plant defense during the colonization of the nitrogen-fixing nodule and are required for bacteroid persistence. The previously identified nodule-specific NAD1 gene encodes a protein of unknown function. Herein, we present the analysis of novel NAD1 mutant alleles to better understand the function of NAD1 in the repression of immune responses in symbiotic nodules. By exploiting the advantage of plant double and rhizobial mutants defective in establishing nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction, we show that NAD1 functions following the release of rhizobia from the infection threads and colonization of nodule cells. The suppression of plant defense is self-dependent of the differentiation status of the rhizobia. The corresponding phenotype of nad1 and dnf2 mutants and the similarity in the induction of defense-associated genes in both mutants suggest that NAD1 and DNF2 operate close together in the same pathway controlling defense responses in symbiotic nodules. View Full-Text
Keywords: defense response; nodule; symbiosis; nitrogen fixation; legume; Medicago truncatula; rhizobia defense response; nodule; symbiosis; nitrogen fixation; legume; Medicago truncatula; rhizobia
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Domonkos, Á.; Kovács, S.; Gombár, A.; Kiss, E.; Horváth, B.; Kováts, G.Z.; Farkas, A.; Tóth, M.T.; Ayaydin, F.; Bóka, K.; Fodor, L.; Ratet, P.; Kereszt, A.; Endre, G.; Kaló, P. NAD1 Controls Defense-Like Responses in Medicago truncatula Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixing Nodules Following Rhizobial Colonization in a BacA-Independent Manner. Genes 2017, 8, 387.

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