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Delivery Mode and the Transition of Pioneering Gut-Microbiota Structure, Composition and Predicted Metabolic Function

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
Post Graduate Program Sciences in Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040-060, Brazil
Post Graduate Program in Child and Adolescent Health, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90040-060, Brazil
Division of Translational Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2017, 8(12), 364;
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes, Obesity and the Gut Microbiome)
Cesarean (C-section) delivery, recently shown to cause excess weight gain in mice, perturbs human neonatal gut microbiota development due to the lack of natural mother-to-newborn transfer of microbes. Neonates excrete first the in-utero intestinal content (referred to as meconium) hours after birth, followed by intestinal contents reflective of extra-uterine exposure (referred to as transition stool) 2 to 3 days after birth. It is not clear when the effect of C-section on the neonatal gut microbiota emerges. We examined bacterial DNA in carefully-collected meconium, and the subsequent transitional stool, from 59 neonates [13 born by scheduled C-section and 46 born by vaginal delivery] in a private hospital in Brazil. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq (San Diego, CA, USA) platform. We found evidence of bacterial DNA in the majority of meconium samples in our study. The bacterial DNA structure (i.e., beta diversity) of meconium differed significantly from that of the transitional stool microbiota. There was a significant reduction in bacterial alpha diversity (e.g., number of observed bacterial species) and change in bacterial composition (e.g., reduced Proteobacteria) in the transition from meconium to stool. However, changes in predicted microbiota metabolic function from meconium to transitional stool were only observed in vaginally-delivered neonates. Within sample comparisons showed that delivery mode was significantly associated with bacterial structure, composition and predicted microbiota metabolic function in transitional-stool samples, but not in meconium samples. Specifically, compared to vaginally delivered neonates, the transitional stool of C-section delivered neonates had lower proportions of the genera Bacteroides, Parabacteroides and Clostridium. These differences led to C-section neonates having lower predicted abundance of microbial genes related to metabolism of amino and nucleotide sugars, and higher abundance of genes related to fatty-acid metabolism, amino-acid degradation and xenobiotics biodegradation. In summary, microbiota diversity was reduced in the transition from meconium to stool, and the association of delivery mode with microbiota structure, composition and predicted metabolic function was not observed until the passing of the transitional stool after meconium. View Full-Text
Keywords: cesarean section; microbiome; microbiota; microbial community; obesity cesarean section; microbiome; microbiota; microbial community; obesity
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Mueller, N.T.; Shin, H.; Pizoni, A.; Werlang, I.C.; Matte, U.; Goldani, M.Z.; Goldani, H.A.S.; Dominguez-Bello, M.G. Delivery Mode and the Transition of Pioneering Gut-Microbiota Structure, Composition and Predicted Metabolic Function. Genes 2017, 8, 364.

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