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Mechanisms Governing DDK Regulation of the Initiation of DNA Replication

Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eishi Noguchi
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Replication Controls)
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The budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) complex—comprised of cell division cycle (Cdc7) kinase and its regulatory subunit dumbbell former 4 (Dbf4)—is required to trigger the initiation of DNA replication through the phosphorylation of multiple minichromosome maintenance complex subunits 2-7 (Mcm2-7). DDK is also a target of the radiation sensitive 53 (Rad53) checkpoint kinase in response to replication stress. Numerous investigations have determined mechanistic details, including the regions of Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 phosphorylated by DDK, and a number of DDK docking sites. Similarly, the way in which the Rad53 forkhead-associated 1 (FHA1) domain binds to DDK—involving both canonical and non-canonical interactions—has been elucidated. Recent work has revealed mutual promotion of DDK and synthetic lethal with dpb11-1 3 (Sld3) roles. While DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2-7 subunits facilitates their interaction with Sld3 at origins, Sld3 in turn stimulates DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. Details of a mutually antagonistic relationship between DDK and Rap1-interacting factor 1 (Rif1) have also recently come to light. While Rif1 is able to reverse DDK-mediated Mcm2-7 complex phosphorylation by targeting the protein phosphatase glycogen 7 (Glc7) to origins, there is evidence to suggest that DDK can counteract this activity by binding to and phosphorylating Rif1. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA replication; DDK; Dbf4; Cdc7; MCM; Rad53; cell cycle checkpoint; Rif1; Sld3 DNA replication; DDK; Dbf4; Cdc7; MCM; Rad53; cell cycle checkpoint; Rif1; Sld3

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Larasati; Duncker, B.P. Mechanisms Governing DDK Regulation of the Initiation of DNA Replication. Genes 2017, 8, 3.

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