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Review

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Effects in Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review

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St. Catherine Specialty Hospital, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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General Hospital Karlovac, 47000 Karlovac, Croatia
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Image Regenerative Clinic, 20121 Milan, Italy
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Medical School, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Medical School, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Medical School REGIOMED, 96450 Coburg, Germany
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Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
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The Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Cinelli
Genes 2022, 13(6), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13060949
Received: 26 April 2022 / Revised: 21 May 2022 / Accepted: 24 May 2022 / Published: 26 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Stem Cell Research)
With the insufficient satisfaction rates and high cost of operative treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), alternatives have been sought. Furthermore, the inability of current medications to arrest disease progression has led to rapidly growing clinical research relating to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The availability and function of MSCs vary according to tissue source. The three primary sources include the placenta, bone marrow, and adipose tissue, all of which offer excellent safety profiles. The primary mechanisms of action are trophic and immunomodulatory effects, which prevent the further degradation of joints. However, the function and degree to which benefits are observed vary significantly based on the exosomes secreted by MSCs. Paracrine and autocrine mechanisms prevent cell apoptosis and tissue fibrosis, initiate angiogenesis, and stimulate mitosis via growth factors. MSCs have even been shown to exhibit antimicrobial effects. Clinical results incorporating clinical scores and objective radiological imaging have been promising, but a lack of standardization in isolating MSCs prevents their incorporation in current guidelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; osteoarthritis; bone marrow; adipose tissue; placenta; stromal vascular fraction mesenchymal stem cells; osteoarthritis; bone marrow; adipose tissue; placenta; stromal vascular fraction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Molnar, V.; Pavelić, E.; Vrdoljak, K.; Čemerin, M.; Klarić, E.; Matišić, V.; Bjelica, R.; Brlek, P.; Kovačić, I.; Tremolada, C.; Primorac, D. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Effects in Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review. Genes 2022, 13, 949. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13060949

AMA Style

Molnar V, Pavelić E, Vrdoljak K, Čemerin M, Klarić E, Matišić V, Bjelica R, Brlek P, Kovačić I, Tremolada C, Primorac D. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Effects in Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review. Genes. 2022; 13(6):949. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13060949

Chicago/Turabian Style

Molnar, Vilim, Eduard Pavelić, Kristijan Vrdoljak, Martin Čemerin, Emil Klarić, Vid Matišić, Roko Bjelica, Petar Brlek, Ivana Kovačić, Carlo Tremolada, and Dragan Primorac. 2022. "Mesenchymal Stem Cell Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Effects in Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review" Genes 13, no. 6: 949. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13060949

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