Next Article in Journal
A Brief Review on the Regulatory Roles of MicroRNAs in Cystic Diseases and Their Use as Potential Biomarkers
Next Article in Special Issue
New Genomic Signals Underlying the Emergence of Human Proto-Genes
Previous Article in Journal
Identification and Functional Analysis of the Regulatory Elements in the pHSPA6 Promoter
Previous Article in Special Issue
Rapid Cis–Trans Coevolution Driven by a Novel Gene Retroposed from a Eukaryotic Conserved CCR4–NOT Component in Drosophila
Brief Report

Functional Innovation through Gene Duplication Followed by Frameshift Mutation

1
Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Center for Excellence in Animal Evolution and Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
4
Department of Evolutionary Studies of Biosystems, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama 240-0193, Kanagawa, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nico M. Van Straalen
Genes 2022, 13(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13020190
Received: 11 August 2021 / Revised: 14 January 2022 / Accepted: 18 January 2022 / Published: 21 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Do New Genes Originate and Evolve?)
In his influential book “Evolution by Gene Duplication”, Ohno postulated that frameshift mutation could lead to a new function after duplication, but frameshift mutation is generally thought to be deleterious, and thus drew little attention in functional innovation in duplicate evolution. To this end, we here report an exhaustive survey of the genomes of human, mouse, zebrafish, and fruit fly. We identified 80 duplicate genes that involved frameshift mutations after duplication. The frameshift mutation preferentially located close to the C-terminus in most cases (55/88), which indicated that a frameshift mutation that changed the reading frame in a small part at the end of a duplicate may likely have contributed to adaptive evolution (e.g., human genes NOTCH2NL and ARHGAP11B) otherwise too deleterious to survive. A few cases (11/80) involved multiple frameshift mutations, exhibiting various patterns of modifications of the reading frame. Functionality of duplicate genes involving frameshift mutations was confirmed by sequence characteristics and expression profile, suggesting a potential role of frameshift mutation in creating functional novelty. We thus showed that genomes have non-negligible numbers of genes that have experienced frameshift mutations following gene duplication. Our results demonstrated the potential importance of frameshift mutations in molecular evolution, as Ohno verbally argued 50 years ago. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ohno; gene duplication; frameshift mutation; NOTCH2NL; ARHGAP11B Ohno; gene duplication; frameshift mutation; NOTCH2NL; ARHGAP11B
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, B.; Zou, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Innan, H. Functional Innovation through Gene Duplication Followed by Frameshift Mutation. Genes 2022, 13, 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13020190

AMA Style

Guo B, Zou M, Sakamoto T, Innan H. Functional Innovation through Gene Duplication Followed by Frameshift Mutation. Genes. 2022; 13(2):190. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13020190

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Baocheng, Ming Zou, Takahiro Sakamoto, and Hideki Innan. 2022. "Functional Innovation through Gene Duplication Followed by Frameshift Mutation" Genes 13, no. 2: 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes13020190

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop