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Article

A Genome-Wide Analysis of Pathogenesis-Related Protein-1 (PR-1) Genes from Piper nigrum Reveals Its Critical Role during Phytophthora capsici Infection

Transdisciplinary Biology, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram 695014, Kerala, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally as the first Author.
Academic Editors: Chandrasekhar Natarajan, Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal and Nishana Mayilaadumveettil
Genes 2021, 12(7), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12071007
Received: 1 May 2021 / Revised: 10 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteins: Proteomics and Beyond)
Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a prominent spice that is an indispensable ingredient in cuisine and traditional medicine. Phytophthora capsici, the causative agent of footrot disease, causes a drastic constraint in P. nigrum cultivation and productivity. To counterattack various biotic and abiotic stresses, plants employ a broad array of mechanisms that includes the accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Through a genome-wide survey, eleven PR-1 genes that belong to a CAP superfamily protein with a caveolin-binding motif (CBM) and a CAP-derived peptide (CAPE) were identified from P. nigrum. Despite the critical functional domains, PnPR-1 homologs differ in their signal peptide motifs and core amino acid composition in the functional protein domains. The conserved motifs of PnPR-1 proteins were identified using MEME. Most of the PnPR-1 proteins were basic in nature. Secondary and 3D structure analyses of the PnPR-1 proteins were also predicted, which may be linked to a functional role in P. nigrum. The GO and KEGG functional annotations predicted their function in the defense responses of plant-pathogen interactions. Furthermore, a transcriptome-assisted FPKM analysis revealed PnPR-1 genes mapped to the P. nigrum-P. capsici interaction pathway. An altered expression pattern was detected for PnPR-1 transcripts among which a significant upregulation was noted for basic PnPR-1 genes such as CL10113.C1 and Unigene17664. The drastic variation in the transcript levels of CL10113.C1 was further validated through qRT-PCR and it showed a significant upregulation in infected leaf samples compared with the control. A subsequent analysis revealed the structural details, phylogenetic relationships, conserved sequence motifs and critical cis-regulatory elements of PnPR-1 genes. This is the first genome-wide study that identified the role of PR-1 genes during P. nigrum-P. capsici interactions. The detailed in silico experimental analysis revealed the vital role of PnPR-1 genes in regulating the first layer of defense towards a P. capsici infection in Panniyur-1 plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: footrot; black pepper; promoter; cap domain; plant immunity; cis-regulatory element; biotic stress footrot; black pepper; promoter; cap domain; plant immunity; cis-regulatory element; biotic stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kattupalli, D.; Srinivasan, A.; Soniya, E.V. A Genome-Wide Analysis of Pathogenesis-Related Protein-1 (PR-1) Genes from Piper nigrum Reveals Its Critical Role during Phytophthora capsici Infection. Genes 2021, 12, 1007. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12071007

AMA Style

Kattupalli D, Srinivasan A, Soniya EV. A Genome-Wide Analysis of Pathogenesis-Related Protein-1 (PR-1) Genes from Piper nigrum Reveals Its Critical Role during Phytophthora capsici Infection. Genes. 2021; 12(7):1007. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12071007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kattupalli, Divya, Asha Srinivasan, and Eppurath V. Soniya. 2021. "A Genome-Wide Analysis of Pathogenesis-Related Protein-1 (PR-1) Genes from Piper nigrum Reveals Its Critical Role during Phytophthora capsici Infection" Genes 12, no. 7: 1007. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12071007

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