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Article

Causal Association between Periodontitis and Parkinson’s Disease: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study

1
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz (CiiEM), Periodontology Department, Clinical Research Unit (CRU), Egas Moniz—Cooperativa de Ensino Superior, CRL, 2829-511 Almada, Portugal
2
Evidence-Based Hub, CRU, CiiEM, Egas Moniz—Cooperativa de Ensino Superior, CRL, 2829-511 Almada, Portugal
3
Center for Medical Genetics and Pediatric Nutrition Egas Moniz, IUEM, 2829-511 Almada, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Allison D. Ebert
Genes 2021, 12(5), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050772
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 6 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Neurodegenerative Diseases)
The latest evidence revealed a possible association between periodontitis and Parkinson’s disease (PD). We explored the causal relationship of this bidirectional association through two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) in European ancestry populations. To this end, we used openly accessible data of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on periodontitis and PD. As instrumental variables for periodontitis, seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a GWAS of periodontitis (1817 periodontitis cases vs. 2215 controls) and eight non-overlapping SNPs of periodontitis from an additional GWAS for validation purposes. Instrumental variables to explore for the reverse causation included forty-five SNPs from a GWAS of PD (20,184 cases and 397,324 controls). Multiple approaches of MR were carried-out. There was no evidence of genetic liability of periodontitis being associated with a higher risk of PD (B = −0.0003, Standard Error [SE] 0.0003, p = 0.26). The eight independent SNPs (B = −0.0000, SE 0.0001, p = 0.99) validated this outcome. We also found no association of genetically primed PD towards periodontitis (B = −0.0001, SE 0.0001, p = 0.19). These MR study findings do not support a bidirectional causal genetic liability between periodontitis and PD. Further GWAS studies are needed to confirm the consistency of these results. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; periodontitis; periodontal disease; Mendelian randomization; bioinformatics; oral health Parkinson’s disease; periodontitis; periodontal disease; Mendelian randomization; bioinformatics; oral health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Botelho, J.; Machado, V.; Mendes, J.J.; Mascarenhas, P. Causal Association between Periodontitis and Parkinson’s Disease: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study. Genes 2021, 12, 772. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050772

AMA Style

Botelho J, Machado V, Mendes JJ, Mascarenhas P. Causal Association between Periodontitis and Parkinson’s Disease: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study. Genes. 2021; 12(5):772. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050772

Chicago/Turabian Style

Botelho, João, Vanessa Machado, José J. Mendes, and Paulo Mascarenhas. 2021. "Causal Association between Periodontitis and Parkinson’s Disease: A Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study" Genes 12, no. 5: 772. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050772

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