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Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Amazon Parrots in the Greater Antilles

Biology Department, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Mayagüez 00682, Puerto Rico
Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
Applied Genomics Laboratory, SCAMT Institute, ITMO University, 191002 St. Petersburg, Russia
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033 Novosibirsk, Russia
Conservation Program of the Puerto Rican Parrot, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Rio Grande 00745, Puerto Rico
The Recovery Program of the Puerto Rican Parrot at the Rio Abajo State Forest, Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico, Arecibo 00613, Puerto Rico
Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48307, USA
Department of Biology, Uzhhorod National University, 88000 Uzhhorod, Ukraine
Terra Wildlife Genomics, Washington, DC 20009, USA
Environmental Science and Policy, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC 20036, USA
New York Genome Center, New York, NY 10013, USA
Department of Environmental Health, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Hope Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Kingston 6, Jamaica
Center for Species Survival, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, Front Royal, VA 22630, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arne Ludwig
Genes 2021, 12(4), 608;
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 13 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genome Diversity of Adaptation and Speciation)
Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.) colonized the islands of the Greater Antilles from the Central American mainland, but there has not been a consensus as to how and when this happened. Today, most of the five remaining island species are listed as endangered, threatened, or vulnerable as a consequence of human activity. We sequenced and annotated full mitochondrial genomes of all the extant Amazon parrot species from the Greater Antillean (A. leucocephala (Cuba), A. agilis, A. collaria (both from Jamaica), A. ventralis (Hispaniola), and A. vittata (Puerto Rico)), A. albifrons from mainland Central America, and A. rhodocorytha from the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The assembled and annotated mitogenome maps provide information on sequence organization, variation, population diversity, and evolutionary history for the Caribbean species including the critically endangered A. vittata. Despite the larger number of available samples from the Puerto Rican Parrot Recovery Program, the sequence diversity of the A. vittata population in Puerto Rico was the lowest among all parrot species analyzed. Our data support the stepping-stone dispersal and speciation hypothesis that has started approximately 3.47 MYA when the ancestral population arrived from mainland Central America and led to diversification across the Greater Antilles, ultimately reaching the island of Puerto Rico 0.67 MYA. The results are presented and discussed in light of the geological history of the Caribbean and in the context of recent parrot evolution, island biogeography, and conservation. This analysis contributes to understating evolutionary history and empowers subsequent assessments of sequence variation and helps design future conservation efforts in the Caribbean. View Full-Text
Keywords: Amazona; Caribbean; mitochondria; genomes; A. leucocephala; A. agilis; A. collaria; A. ventralis; A. vittata; A. rhodocorytha Amazona; Caribbean; mitochondria; genomes; A. leucocephala; A. agilis; A. collaria; A. ventralis; A. vittata; A. rhodocorytha
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kolchanova, S.; Komissarov, A.; Kliver, S.; Mazo-Vargas, A.; Afanador, Y.; Velez-Valentín, J.; de la Rosa, R.V.; Castro-Marquez, S.; Rivera-Colon, I.; Majeske, A.J.; Wolfsberger, W.W.; Hains, T.; Corvelo, A.; Martinez-Cruzado, J.-C.; Glenn, T.C.; Robinson, O.; Koepfli, K.-P.; Oleksyk, T.K. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Amazon Parrots in the Greater Antilles. Genes 2021, 12, 608.

AMA Style

Kolchanova S, Komissarov A, Kliver S, Mazo-Vargas A, Afanador Y, Velez-Valentín J, de la Rosa RV, Castro-Marquez S, Rivera-Colon I, Majeske AJ, Wolfsberger WW, Hains T, Corvelo A, Martinez-Cruzado J-C, Glenn TC, Robinson O, Koepfli K-P, Oleksyk TK. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Amazon Parrots in the Greater Antilles. Genes. 2021; 12(4):608.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kolchanova, Sofiia, Alexey Komissarov, Sergei Kliver, Anyi Mazo-Vargas, Yashira Afanador, Jafet Velez-Valentín, Ricardo Valentín de la Rosa, Stephanie Castro-Marquez, Israel Rivera-Colon, Audrey J. Majeske, Walter W. Wolfsberger, Taylor Hains, André Corvelo, Juan-Carlos Martinez-Cruzado, Travis C. Glenn, Orlando Robinson, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, and Taras K. Oleksyk. 2021. "Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Amazon Parrots in the Greater Antilles" Genes 12, no. 4: 608.

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