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Article

Genome Analysis of Endotrypanum and Porcisia spp., Closest Phylogenetic Relatives of Leishmania, Highlights the Role of Amastins in Shaping Pathogenicity

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Life Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, 71000 Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Faculty of Biology, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
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Biomedical Institute, São Paulo University, São Paulo 05508, Brazil
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Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, 12844 Prague, Czech Republic
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Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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de Duve Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
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Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector Borne Diseases, Sechenov University, 119435 Moscow, Russia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jose M. Requena and Begoña Aguado
Genes 2021, 12(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030444
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 15 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 20 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Leishmania)
While numerous genomes of Leishmania spp. have been sequenced and analyzed, an understanding of the evolutionary history of these organisms remains limited due to the unavailability of the sequence data for their closest known relatives, Endotrypanum and Porcisia spp., infecting sloths and porcupines. We have sequenced and analyzed genomes of three members of this clade in order to fill this gap. Their comparative analyses revealed only minute differences from Leishmaniamajor genome in terms of metabolic capacities. We also documented that the number of genes under positive selection on the Endotrypanum/Porcisia branch is rather small, with the flagellum-related group of genes being over-represented. Most significantly, the analysis of gene family evolution revealed a substantially reduced repertoire of surface proteins, such as amastins and biopterin transporters BT1 in the Endotrypanum/Porcisia species when compared to amastigote-dwelling Leishmania. This reduction was especially pronounced for δ-amastins, a subfamily of cell surface proteins crucial in the propagation of Leishmania amastigotes inside vertebrate macrophages and, apparently, dispensable for Endotrypanum/Porcisia, which do not infect such cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: leishmaniinae; genome analysis; gene gain; gene loss leishmaniinae; genome analysis; gene gain; gene loss
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MDPI and ACS Style

Albanaz, A.T.S.; Gerasimov, E.S.; Shaw, J.J.; Sádlová, J.; Lukeš, J.; Volf, P.; Opperdoes, F.R.; Kostygov, A.Y.; Butenko, A.; Yurchenko, V. Genome Analysis of Endotrypanum and Porcisia spp., Closest Phylogenetic Relatives of Leishmania, Highlights the Role of Amastins in Shaping Pathogenicity. Genes 2021, 12, 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030444

AMA Style

Albanaz ATS, Gerasimov ES, Shaw JJ, Sádlová J, Lukeš J, Volf P, Opperdoes FR, Kostygov AY, Butenko A, Yurchenko V. Genome Analysis of Endotrypanum and Porcisia spp., Closest Phylogenetic Relatives of Leishmania, Highlights the Role of Amastins in Shaping Pathogenicity. Genes. 2021; 12(3):444. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030444

Chicago/Turabian Style

Albanaz, Amanda T.S., Evgeny S. Gerasimov, Jeffrey J. Shaw, Jovana Sádlová, Julius Lukeš, Petr Volf, Fred R. Opperdoes, Alexei Y. Kostygov, Anzhelika Butenko, and Vyacheslav Yurchenko. 2021. "Genome Analysis of Endotrypanum and Porcisia spp., Closest Phylogenetic Relatives of Leishmania, Highlights the Role of Amastins in Shaping Pathogenicity" Genes 12, no. 3: 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030444

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