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Review

Linear Skin Defects with Multiple Congenital Anomalies (LSDMCA): An Unconventional Mitochondrial Disorder

1
Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Via Campi Flegrei, 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy
2
Institute for Genetic and Biomedical Research (IRGB), National Research Council (CNR), 20090 Milan, Italy
3
Medical Genetics, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roel Ophoff
Genes 2021, 12(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12020263
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 5 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 11 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes at Ten)
Mitochondrial disorders, although heterogeneous, are traditionally described as conditions characterized by encephalomyopathy, hypotonia, and progressive postnatal organ failure. Here, we provide a systematic review of Linear Skin Defects with Multiple Congenital Anomalies (LSDMCA), a rare, unconventional mitochondrial disorder which presents as a developmental disease; its main clinical features include microphthalmia with different degrees of severity, linear skin lesions, and central nervous system malformations. The molecular basis of this disorder has been elusive for several years. Mutations were eventually identified in three X-linked genes, i.e., HCCS, COX7B, and NDUFB11, which are all endowed with defined roles in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A peculiar feature of this condition is its inheritance pattern: X-linked dominant male-lethal. Only female or XX male individuals can be observed, implying that nullisomy for these genes is incompatible with normal embryonic development in mammals. All three genes undergo X-inactivation that, according to our hypothesis, may contribute to the extreme variable expressivity observed in this condition. We propose that mitochondrial dysfunction should be considered as an underlying cause in developmental disorders. Moreover, LSDMCA should be taken into consideration by clinicians when dealing with patients with microphthalmia with or without associated skin phenotypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: MLS/MIDAS/LSDMCA; X-inactivation; HCCS; COX7B; NDUFB11; mitochondrial disorders; mitochondrial respiratory chain; microphthalmia; linear skin defects MLS/MIDAS/LSDMCA; X-inactivation; HCCS; COX7B; NDUFB11; mitochondrial disorders; mitochondrial respiratory chain; microphthalmia; linear skin defects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Indrieri, A.; Franco, B. Linear Skin Defects with Multiple Congenital Anomalies (LSDMCA): An Unconventional Mitochondrial Disorder. Genes 2021, 12, 263. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12020263

AMA Style

Indrieri A, Franco B. Linear Skin Defects with Multiple Congenital Anomalies (LSDMCA): An Unconventional Mitochondrial Disorder. Genes. 2021; 12(2):263. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12020263

Chicago/Turabian Style

Indrieri, Alessia, and Brunella Franco. 2021. "Linear Skin Defects with Multiple Congenital Anomalies (LSDMCA): An Unconventional Mitochondrial Disorder" Genes 12, no. 2: 263. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12020263

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