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Article

The Novel Halovirus Hardycor1, and the Presence of Active (Induced) Proviruses in Four Haloarchaea

1
Computational Biology Group, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
2
Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia
3
Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2021, 12(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12020149
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 23 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
The virus Hardycor1 was isolated in 1998 and infects the haloarchaeon Halorubrum coriense. DNA from a frozen stock (HC1) was sequenced and the viral genome found to be 45,142 bp of dsDNA, probably having redundant, circularly permuted termini. The genome showed little similarity (BLASTn) to known viruses. Only twenty-two of the 53 (41%) predicted proteins were significantly similar to sequences in the NCBI nr protein database (E-value ≤ 10−15). Six caudovirus-like proteins were encoded, including large subunit terminase (TerL), major capsid protein (Mcp) and tape measure protein (Tmp). Hardycor1 was predicted to be a siphovirus (VIRFAM). No close relationship to other viruses was found using phylogenetic tree reconstructions based on TerL and Mcp. Unexpectedly, the sequenced virus stock HC1 also revealed two induced proviruses of the host: a siphovirus (Humcor1) and a pleolipovirus (Humcor2). A re-examination of other similarly sequenced, archival virus stocks revealed induced proviruses of Haloferax volcanii, Haloferax gibbonsii and Haloarcula hispanica, three of which were pleolipoviruses. One provirus (Halfvol2) of Hfx. volcanii showed little similarity (BLASTn) to known viruses and probably represents a novel virus group. The attP sequences of many pleolipoproviruses were found to be embedded in a newly detected coding sequence, split in the provirus state, that spans between genes for integrase and a downstream CxxC-motif protein. This gene might play an important role in regulation of the temperate state. View Full-Text
Keywords: archaea; haloarchaea; temperate virus; Haloferax; Haloarcula; Halorubrum; halobacteria; pleolipovirus; caudovirus; siphovirus archaea; haloarchaea; temperate virus; Haloferax; Haloarcula; Halorubrum; halobacteria; pleolipovirus; caudovirus; siphovirus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dyall-Smith, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Chiang, P.-W.; Tang, S.-L. The Novel Halovirus Hardycor1, and the Presence of Active (Induced) Proviruses in Four Haloarchaea. Genes 2021, 12, 149. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12020149

AMA Style

Dyall-Smith M, Pfeiffer F, Chiang P-W, Tang S-L. The Novel Halovirus Hardycor1, and the Presence of Active (Induced) Proviruses in Four Haloarchaea. Genes. 2021; 12(2):149. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12020149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dyall-Smith, Mike, Friedhelm Pfeiffer, Pei-Wen Chiang, and Sen-Lin Tang. 2021. "The Novel Halovirus Hardycor1, and the Presence of Active (Induced) Proviruses in Four Haloarchaea" Genes 12, no. 2: 149. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12020149

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