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Article

Juvenile Heat Tolerance in Wheat for Attaining Higher Grain Yield by Shifting to Early Sowing in October in South Asia

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Borlaug Institute for South Asia (BISA), NASC Complex, DPS Marg, New Delhi 110012, India
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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), NASC Complex, DPS Marg, New Delhi 110012, India
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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), El Batan 56237, Mexico
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Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), 06466 Gatersleben, Germany
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Campo Experimental Valle de Mexico-INIFAP, Carretera los Reyes-Texcoco, Coatlinchan 56250, Mexico
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ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research (IIWBR), ICAR, Karnal 132001, India
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Plant Breeding and Genetics Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India
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Regional Research Station, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Indore 542001, India
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Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Krishi Nagar, Dharwad 580005, India
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Genetics and Plant Breeding Group, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411004, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrizia Galeffi
Genes 2021, 12(11), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111808
Received: 30 September 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 6 November 2021 / Published: 18 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Evolution of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants)
Farmers in northwestern and central India have been exploring to sow their wheat much earlier (October) than normal (November) to sustain productivity by escaping terminal heat stress and to utilize the available soil moisture after the harvesting of rice crop. However, current popular varieties are poorly adapted to early sowing due to the exposure of juvenile plants to the warmer temperatures in the month of October and early November. Therefore, a study was undertaken to identify wheat genotypes suited to October sowing under warmer temperatures in India. A diverse collection of 3322 bread wheat varieties and elite lines was prepared in CIMMYT, Mexico, and planted in the 3rd week of October during the crop season 2012–2013 in six locations (Ludhiana, Karnal, New Delhi, Indore, Pune and Dharwad) spread over northwestern plains zone (NWPZ) and central and Peninsular zone (CZ and PZ; designated as CPZ) of India. Agronomic traits data from the seedling stage to maturity were recorded. Results indicated substantial diversity for yield and yield-associated traits, with some lines showing indications of higher yields under October sowing. Based on agronomic performance and disease resistance, the top 48 lines (and two local checks) were identified and planted in the next crop season (2013–2014) in a replicated trial in all six locations under October sowing (third week). High yielding lines that could tolerate higher temperature in October sowing were identified for both zones; however, performance for grain yield was more promising in the NWPZ. Hence, a new trial of 30 lines was planted only in NWPZ under October sowing. Lines showing significantly superior yield over the best check and the most popular cultivars in the zone were identified. The study suggested that agronomically superior wheat varieties with early heat tolerance can be obtained that can provide yield up to 8 t/ha by planting in the third to fourth week of October. View Full-Text
Keywords: early heat stress; Triticum aestivum; heat tolerance; VRN; PPD; photoperiod early heat stress; Triticum aestivum; heat tolerance; VRN; PPD; photoperiod
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, U.; Singh, R.P.; Dreisigacker, S.; Röder, M.S.; Crossa, J.; Huerta-Espino, J.; Mondal, S.; Crespo-Herrera, L.; Singh, G.P.; Mishra, C.N.; Mavi, G.S.; Sohu, V.S.; Prasad, S.V.S.; Naik, R.; Misra, S.C.; Joshi, A.K. Juvenile Heat Tolerance in Wheat for Attaining Higher Grain Yield by Shifting to Early Sowing in October in South Asia. Genes 2021, 12, 1808. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111808

AMA Style

Kumar U, Singh RP, Dreisigacker S, Röder MS, Crossa J, Huerta-Espino J, Mondal S, Crespo-Herrera L, Singh GP, Mishra CN, Mavi GS, Sohu VS, Prasad SVS, Naik R, Misra SC, Joshi AK. Juvenile Heat Tolerance in Wheat for Attaining Higher Grain Yield by Shifting to Early Sowing in October in South Asia. Genes. 2021; 12(11):1808. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111808

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Uttam, Ravi P. Singh, Susanne Dreisigacker, Marion S. Röder, Jose Crossa, Julio Huerta-Espino, Suchismita Mondal, Leonardo Crespo-Herrera, Gyanendra P. Singh, Chandra N. Mishra, Gurvinder S. Mavi, Virinder S. Sohu, Sakuru V.S. Prasad, Rudra Naik, Satish C. Misra, and Arun K. Joshi. 2021. "Juvenile Heat Tolerance in Wheat for Attaining Higher Grain Yield by Shifting to Early Sowing in October in South Asia" Genes 12, no. 11: 1808. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111808

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