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Open AccessArticle

Genomic Analysis of Selected Maize Landraces from Sahel and Coastal West Africa Reveals Their Variability and Potential for Genetic Enhancement

1
West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land-use (WASCAL), Université Felix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan 22 BP 461, Côte d’Ivoire
2
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan 200001, Nigeria
3
Department of Bioscience, Université Felix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan 22 BP 461, Côte d’Ivoire
4
Excellence in Breeding (EiB) Platform, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), ICRAF House, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
5
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University Post Office Box PMP, Kumasi 00233, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(9), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11091054
Received: 10 August 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 28 August 2020 / Published: 7 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Genetics and Breeding of Major Staple Food Crops)
Genetic adaptation of maize to the increasingly unpredictable climatic conditions is an essential prerequisite for achievement of food security and sustainable development goals in sub-Saharan Africa. The landraces of maize; which have not served as sources of improved germplasm; are invaluable sources of novel genetic variability crucial for achieving this objective. The overall goal of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of a maize panel of 208 accessions; comprising landrace gene pools from Burkina Faso (58), Ghana (43), and Togo (89), together with reference populations (18) from the maize improvement program of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Genotyping the maize panel with 5974 DArTseq-SNP markers revealed immense genetic diversity indicated by average expected heterozygosity (0.36), observed heterozygosity (0.5), and polymorphic information content (0.29). Model-based population structure; neighbor-joining tree; discriminant analysis of principal component; and principal coordinate analyses all separated the maize panel into three major sub-populations; each capable of providing a wide range of allelic variation. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86% of the variation was within individuals; while 14% was attributable to differences among gene pools. The Burkinabe gene pool was strongly differentiated from all the others (genetic differentiation values >0.20), with no gene flow (Nm) to the reference populations (Nm = 0.98). Thus; this gene pool could be a target for novel genetic variation for maize improvement. The results of the present study confirmed the potential of this maize panel as an invaluable genetic resource for future design of association mapping studies to speed-up the introgression of this novel variation into the existing breeding pipelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: landraces; genetic diversity; population structure; West Africa; maize improvement; DArTseq markers landraces; genetic diversity; population structure; West Africa; maize improvement; DArTseq markers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nelimor, C.; Badu-Apraku, B.; Garcia-Oliveira, A.L.; Tetteh, A.; Paterne, A.; N’guetta, A.S.-P.; Gedil, M. Genomic Analysis of Selected Maize Landraces from Sahel and Coastal West Africa Reveals Their Variability and Potential for Genetic Enhancement. Genes 2020, 11, 1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11091054

AMA Style

Nelimor C, Badu-Apraku B, Garcia-Oliveira AL, Tetteh A, Paterne A, N’guetta AS-P, Gedil M. Genomic Analysis of Selected Maize Landraces from Sahel and Coastal West Africa Reveals Their Variability and Potential for Genetic Enhancement. Genes. 2020; 11(9):1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11091054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nelimor, Charles; Badu-Apraku, Baffour; Garcia-Oliveira, Ana L.; Tetteh, Antonia; Paterne, Agre; N’guetta, Assanvo S.-P.; Gedil, Melaku. 2020. "Genomic Analysis of Selected Maize Landraces from Sahel and Coastal West Africa Reveals Their Variability and Potential for Genetic Enhancement" Genes 11, no. 9: 1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11091054

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