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Open AccessArticle

Exploring the Mechanisms of Multiple Insecticide Resistance in a Highly Plasmodium-Infected Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Sensu Stricto from Sahel of Northern Nigeria

1
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
2
Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, PMB 3011 Kano, Nigeria
3
LSTM Research Unit, Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), P.O. Box 13591 Yaoundé, Cameroon
4
Centre for Biotechnology Research, Bayero University, PMB 3011 Kano, Nigeria
5
Department of Medical Microbiology, Bayero University, PMB 3011 Kano, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(4), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040454
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 17 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
The Nigerian Government is scaling up the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria control, but the lack of surveillance data, especially in the Sudan/Sahel region of the country, may hinder targeting priority populations. Here, the vectorial role and insecticide resistance profile of a population of a major malaria vector Anopheles funestus sensu stricto from Sahel of Nigeria was characterised. An. funestus s.s. was the only vector found, with a high human blood index (100%) and a biting rate of 5.3/person/night. High Plasmodium falciparum infection was discovered (sporozoite rate = 54.55%). The population is resistant to permethrin (mortality = 48.30%, LT50 = 65.76 min), deltamethrin, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and bendiocarb, with mortalities of 29.44%, 56.34% and 54.05%, respectively. Cone-bioassays established loss of efficacy of the pyrethroid-only long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs); but 100% recovery of susceptibility was obtained for piperonylbutoxide (PBO)-containing PermaNet®3.0. Synergist bioassays with PBO and diethyl maleate recovered susceptibility, implicating CYP450s (permethrin mortality = 78.73%, χ2 = 22.33, P < 0.0001) and GSTs (DDT mortality = 81.44%, χ2 = 19.12, P < 0.0001). A high frequency of 119F GSTe2 mutation (0.84) was observed (OR = 16, χ2 = 3.40, P = 0.05), suggesting the preeminent role of metabolic resistance. These findings highlight challenges associated with deployment of LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Nigeria. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anopheles funestus; resistance; metabolic; 119F mutation; GSTe2; Plasmodium falciparum; malaria Anopheles funestus; resistance; metabolic; 119F mutation; GSTe2; Plasmodium falciparum; malaria
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Ibrahim, S.S.; Mukhtar, M.M.; Irving, H.; Riveron, J.M.; Fadel, A.N.; Tchapga, W.; Hearn, J.; Muhammad, A.; Sarkinfada, F.; Wondji, C.S. Exploring the Mechanisms of Multiple Insecticide Resistance in a Highly Plasmodium-Infected Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Sensu Stricto from Sahel of Northern Nigeria. Genes 2020, 11, 454.

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