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Review

Farnesol and Tyrosol: Secondary Metabolites with a Crucial quorum-sensing Role in Candida Biofilm Development

1
LEPABE—Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 6, 84215 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(4), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040444
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 15 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 18 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics Studies Focused on Fungal Secondary Metabolism)
When living in biological and interactive communities, microorganisms use quorum-sensing mechanisms for their communication. According to cell density, bacteria and fungi can produce signaling molecules (e.g., secondary metabolites), which participate, for example, in the regulation of gene expression and coordination of collective behavior in their natural niche. The existence of these secondary metabolites plays a main role in competence, colonization of host tissues and surfaces, morphogenesis, and biofilm development. Therefore, for the design of new antibacterials or antifungals and understanding on how these mechanisms occur, to inhibit the secretion of quorum-sensing (e.g., farnesol and tyrosol) molecules leading the progress of microbial infections seems to be an interesting option. In yeasts, farnesol has a main role in the morphological transition, inhibiting hyphae production in a concentration-dependent manner, while tyrosol has a contrary function, stimulating transition from spherical cells to germ tube form. It is beyond doubt that secretion of both molecules by fungi has not been fully described, but specific meaning for their existence has been found. This brief review summarizes the important function of these two compounds as signaling chemicals participating mainly in Candida morphogenesis and regulatory mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: quorum-sensing molecules; farnesol; tyrosol; biofilm quorum-sensing molecules; farnesol; tyrosol; biofilm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodrigues, C.F.; Černáková, L. Farnesol and Tyrosol: Secondary Metabolites with a Crucial quorum-sensing Role in Candida Biofilm Development. Genes 2020, 11, 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040444

AMA Style

Rodrigues CF, Černáková L. Farnesol and Tyrosol: Secondary Metabolites with a Crucial quorum-sensing Role in Candida Biofilm Development. Genes. 2020; 11(4):444. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040444

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodrigues, Célia F., and Lucia Černáková. 2020. "Farnesol and Tyrosol: Secondary Metabolites with a Crucial quorum-sensing Role in Candida Biofilm Development" Genes 11, no. 4: 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040444

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