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Open AccessArticle

Population Genetic Structure Is Unrelated to Shell Shape, Thickness and Organic Content in European Populations of the Soft-Shell Clam Mya Arenaria

1
Department of Animal Behavior, University of Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
2
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK
3
British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OET, UK
4
Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
5
University Brest, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, LEMAR, F-29280 Plouzané, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2020, 11(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030298
Received: 27 January 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 March 2020 / Published: 11 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Diversity of Marine Populations)
The soft-shell clam Mya arenaria is one of the most ancient invaders of European coasts and is present in many coastal ecosystems, yet little is known about its genetic structure in Europe. We collected 266 samples spanning a latitudinal cline from the Mediterranean to the North Sea and genotyped them at 12 microsatellite loci. In parallel, geometric morphometric analysis of shell outlines was used to test for associations between shell shape, latitude and genotype, and for a selection of shells we measured the thickness and organic content of the granular prismatic (PR), the crossed-lamellar (CL) and the complex crossed-lamellar (CCL) layers. Strong population structure was detected, with Bayesian cluster analysis identifying four groups located in the Mediterranean, Celtic Sea, along the continental coast of the North Sea and in Scotland. Multivariate analysis of shell shape uncovered a significant effect of collection site but no associations with any other variables. Shell thickness did not vary significantly with either latitude or genotype, although PR thickness and calcification were positively associated with latitude, while CCL thickness showed a negative association. Our study provides new insights into the population structure of this species and sheds light on factors influencing shell shape, thickness and microstructure. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mya arenaria; soft-shell clam; microsatellite; population genetic structure; phenotypic plasticity; shell morphometrics Mya arenaria; soft-shell clam; microsatellite; population genetic structure; phenotypic plasticity; shell morphometrics
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Noia, M.; Telesca, L.; Vendrami, D.L.J.; Gokalp, H.K.; Charrier, G.; Harper, E.M.; Hoffman, J.I. Population Genetic Structure Is Unrelated to Shell Shape, Thickness and Organic Content in European Populations of the Soft-Shell Clam Mya Arenaria. Genes 2020, 11, 298. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030298

AMA Style

De Noia M, Telesca L, Vendrami DLJ, Gokalp HK, Charrier G, Harper EM, Hoffman JI. Population Genetic Structure Is Unrelated to Shell Shape, Thickness and Organic Content in European Populations of the Soft-Shell Clam Mya Arenaria. Genes. 2020; 11(3):298. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030298

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Noia, Michele; Telesca, Luca; Vendrami, David L.J.; Gokalp, Hatice K.; Charrier, Grégory; Harper, Elizabeth M.; Hoffman, Joseph I. 2020. "Population Genetic Structure Is Unrelated to Shell Shape, Thickness and Organic Content in European Populations of the Soft-Shell Clam Mya Arenaria" Genes 11, no. 3: 298. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11030298

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