Cancerous and non-cancerous cells secrete exosomes, a type of nanovesicle known to carry the molecular signature of the parent for intercellular communications. Exosomes secreted by tumor cells carry abnormal DNA, RNA, and protein molecules that reflect the cancerous status. DNA is the master molecule that ultimately affects the function of RNA and proteins. Aberrations in DNA can potentially lead a cell to malignancy. Deviant quantities and the differential sequences of exosomal DNA are useful characteristics as cancer biomarkers. Since these alterations are either associated with specific stages of cancer or caused due to a clinical treatment, exosomal DNA is valuable as a diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic-intervention response biomarker. Notably, the exosomes can cross an intact blood–brain barrier and anatomical compartments by transcytosis. As such, the cancer-specific trademark molecules can be detected in systemic blood circulation and other body fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid, with non-invasive or minimally invasive procedures. This comprehensive review highlights the cancer-specific modulations of DNA associated with circulating exosomes that are beneficial as glioma biomarkers.
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