Next Article in Journal
Interspecific Genetic Differences and Historical Demography in South American Arowanas (Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae, Osteoglossum)
Previous Article in Journal
Population Genetics of the Highly Polymorphic RPP8 Gene Family
Open AccessArticle

Genetic Variations Associated with Drug Resistance Markers in Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infections in Myanmar

1
Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China
2
Myanmar Health Network Organization, Yangon 11211, Myanmar
3
Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health and Sports, Nay Pyi Taw 15011, Myanmar
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 3720 Spectrum Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Genes 2019, 10(9), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090692
Received: 2 August 2019 / Revised: 31 August 2019 / Accepted: 4 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
The emergence and spread of drug resistance is a problem hindering malaria elimination in Southeast Asia. In this study, genetic variations in drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum were determined in parasites from asymptomatic populations located in three geographically dispersed townships of Myanmar by PCR and sequencing. Mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr), dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps), chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), multidrug resistance protein 1 (pfmdr1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (pfmrp1), and Kelch protein 13 (k13) were present in 92.3%, 97.6%, 84.0%, 98.8%, and 68.3% of the parasites, respectively. The pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 I185K, and pfmrp1 I876V mutations were present in 82.7%, 2.5%, 87.5%, and 59.8% isolates, respectively. The most prevalent haplotypes for pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfcrt and pfmdr1 were 51I/59R/108N/164L, 436A/437G/540E/581A, 74I/75E/76T/220S/271E/326N/356T/371I, and 86N/130E/184Y/185K/1225V, respectively. In addition, 57 isolates had three different point mutations (K191T, F446I, and P574L) and three types of N-terminal insertions (N, NN, NNN) in the k13 gene. In total, 43 distinct haplotypes potentially associated with multidrug resistance were identified. These findings demonstrate a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant P. falciparum in asymptomatic infections from diverse townships in Myanmar, emphasizing the importance of targeting asymptomatic infections to prevent the spread of drug-resistant P. falciparum. View Full-Text
Keywords: asymptomatic infection; Plasmodium falciparum; drug resistance genes; haplotypes; multidrug resistance asymptomatic infection; Plasmodium falciparum; drug resistance genes; haplotypes; multidrug resistance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Y.; Liu, Z.; Soe, M.T.; Wang, L.; Soe, T.N.; Wei, H.; Than, A.; Aung, P.L.; Li, Y.; Zhang, X.; Hu, Y.; Wei, H.; Zhang, Y.; Burgess, J.; Siddiqui, F.A.; Menezes, L.; Wang, Q.; Kyaw, M.P.; Cao, Y.; Cui, L. Genetic Variations Associated with Drug Resistance Markers in Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infections in Myanmar. Genes 2019, 10, 692.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop