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Trans-Species Polymorphism in Mitochondrial Genome of Camarodont Sea Urchins

1
National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 Palchevsky Street, 690041 Vladivostok, Russia
2
School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, 8 Sukhanov Street, 690950 Vladivostok, Russia
Genes 2019, 10(8), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10080592
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Genomes: Genetic and Transcriptomic Studies)
Mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius and Mesocentrotus nudus demonstrate the identical patterns of intraspecific length variability of the ND6 gene, consisting of 489 bp (S variant) and 498 bp (L variant), respectively. For both species, the ND6 length difference is due to the 488A>G substitution, which changes the stop codon TAG in S variant for a tryptophan codon TGG in L variant and elongates the corresponding ND6 protein by three additional amino acids, Trp-Leu-Trp. The phylogenetic analysis based on mt genomes of sea urchins and related echinoderm groups from GenBank has shown the S and L ND6 variants as shared among the camarodont sea urchins; the rest of the echinoderms demonstrate the S variant only. The data suggest that the ND6 488A>G substitution can be the first example of the trans-species polymorphism in sea urchins, persisting at least since the time of the Odontophora diversification at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (approximately 34 million years ago), which was characterized by an abrupt climate change and significant global ocean cooling. Alternative hypotheses, including the convergent RNA editing and/or codon reassignment, are not supported by direct comparisons of the ND6 gene sequences with the corresponding transcripts using the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) of full sea urchin transcriptomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea urchins; Camarodonta; mitochondrial genome; ND6 gene; trans-species polymorphism; transcriptome; short read archive database; Eocene/Oligocene boundary; global ocean temperature change sea urchins; Camarodonta; mitochondrial genome; ND6 gene; trans-species polymorphism; transcriptome; short read archive database; Eocene/Oligocene boundary; global ocean temperature change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Balakirev, E.S. Trans-Species Polymorphism in Mitochondrial Genome of Camarodont Sea Urchins. Genes 2019, 10, 592. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10080592

AMA Style

Balakirev ES. Trans-Species Polymorphism in Mitochondrial Genome of Camarodont Sea Urchins. Genes. 2019; 10(8):592. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10080592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Balakirev, Evgeniy S. 2019. "Trans-Species Polymorphism in Mitochondrial Genome of Camarodont Sea Urchins" Genes 10, no. 8: 592. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10080592

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