The Pelibuey sheep (Ovis aries
) is an indigenous breed distributed in the tropical regions of Mexico. The prolificacy of this sheep is on average from 1 to 1.5 lambs, being an important breeding characteristic that owners seek to increase with the purpose of economic improvements. New-generation RNA sequencing technology has been used to identify the genes that are expressed in the ovarian tissue of sheep that have two or more lambs per parturition, as well as to elucidate the metabolic pathways that are affected by the expression of these genes, with the purpose of better understanding the prolificacy in the sheep. In the present study, the transcriptional expression of multiparous and uniparous sheep was compared using RNA sequencing. Multiparous (M group) and uniparous (U group) sheep that had a genealogical record for three generations (M, n = 5 and U, n = 5) were selected. RNA was extracted from ovarian tissue and subsequently used to prepare the libraries that were sequenced using the Illumina NextSeq500 platform. A total of 31,575 genes were detected from the transcriptomic analysis of which 4908 were significantly expressed (p
-value ≤ 0.001) in the ovary of sheep. Subsequently, a second filter was carried out to evaluate the false discovery rate (FDR) and select those genes with p
-values ≤ 0.05 and values of expression ≥ 1 (log2), obtaining 354 differential expressed genes (DEG): 120 genes up-regulated and 234 genes down-regulated in the group M with respect to the group U. Through Gene Ontology (GO) and metabolic analysis, we obtained information on the function of differentially expressed genes, and its importance in the reproduction of multiparous sheep. This result suggest that genes identified in the present study participate in the development of the final stages of follicles.
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