South China indigenous pigs are famous for their superior meat quality and crude feed tolerance. Saba and Baoshan pigs without saddleback were located in the high-altitude area of Yunnan Province, while Tunchang and Ding’an pigs with saddleback were located in the low-altitude area of Hainan Province. Although these pigs are different in appearance, the underlying genetic differences have not been investigated. In this study, based on the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 124 samples, both the cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and the fixation index (FST
) statistic were used to identify potential signatures of selection in these pig breeds. We found nine potential signatures of selection detected simultaneously by two methods, annotated 22 genes in Hainan pigs, when Baoshan pigs were used as the reference group. In addition, eleven potential signatures of selection detected simultaneously by two methods, annotated 24 genes in Hainan pigs compared with Saba pigs. These candidate genes were most enriched in GO: 0048015~phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling and ssc00604: Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis—ganglio series. These selection signatures were likely to overlap with quantitative trait loci associated with meat quality traits. Furthermore, one potential selection signature, which was associated with different coat color, was detected in Hainan pigs. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underlying genetic architecture of South China indigenous pigs.
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