Antenatal hypoxia caused epigenetic reprogramming of methylome and transcriptome in the developing heart and increased the risk of heart disease later in life. Herein, we investigated the impact of gestational hypoxia in proteome and metabolome in the hearts of fetus and adult offspring. Pregnant rats were treated with normoxia or hypoxia (10.5% O2
) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Hearts were isolated from near-term fetuses and 5 month-old offspring, and proteomics and metabolomics profiling was determined. The data demonstrated that antenatal hypoxia altered proteomics and metabolomics profiling in the heart, impacting energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation-related pathways in a developmental and sex dependent manner. Of importance, integrating multi-omics data of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics profiling revealed reprogramming of the mitochondrion, especially in two clusters: (a) the cluster associated with “mitochondrial translation”/“aminoacyl t-RNA biosynthesis”/“one-carbon pool of folate”/“DNA methylation”; and (b) the cluster with “mitochondrion”/“TCA cycle and respiratory electron transfer”/“acyl-CoA dehydrogenase”/“oxidative phosphorylation”/“complex I”/“troponin myosin cardiac complex”. Our study provides a powerful means of multi-omics data integration and reveals new insights into phenotypic reprogramming of the mitochondrion in the developing heart by fetal hypoxia, contributing to an increase in the heart vulnerability to disease later in life.
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