Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, yet there remains a lack of specific and sensitive tools for early diagnosis and targeted therapies. High-throughput sequencing techniques revealed that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), e.g., microRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), represent more than 80% of the transcribed human genome. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs and lncRNAs regulate target genes and play an important role in biological processes and signaling pathways in malignancies, including lung cancer. In lung cancer, several tumor suppressor/oncogenic microRNAs and lncRNAs function as biomarkers for metastasis and prognosis, and thus may serve as therapeutic tools. In this review, recent work on microRNAs and lncRNAs is introduced and briefly summarized with a focus on potential biological and therapeutic applications.
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