Cilia/flagella are conserved eukaryotic organelles that play an important role in the control of cell motility and detection of environmental cues. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ciliary/flagellar assembly, maintenance, disassembly, and signal transduction are not yet completely understood. Recent studies demonstrated that post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, methylation, glutamylation, and ubiquitination are involved in these processes. In this mini review, we present a summary of research progress in ciliary/flagellar protein ubiquitination, including the ubiquitin conjugation system identified by proteomics as well as the role of ciliary/flagellar protein ubiquitination in flagellar disassembly, motility, and signal transduction. Moreover, we described putative further research directions in the study of ciliary/flagellar protein ubiquitination.
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