Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
MiRiad Roles for MicroRNAs in Cardiac Development and Regeneration
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
MicroRNAs Control Macrophage Formation and Activation: The Inflammatory Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessBrief Report
Cells 2014, 3(3), 713-723;

MicroRNA-421 Dysregulation is Associated with Tetralogy of Fallot

Ward Family Heart Center, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, 2401 Gillham Rd. Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 3 July 2014 / Published: 11 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [400 KB, uploaded 11 July 2014]   |  


The importance of microRNAs for maintaining stability in the developing vertebrate heart has recently become apparent. In addition, there is a growing appreciation for the significance of microRNAs in developmental pathology, including the formation of congenital heart defects. We examined the expression of microRNAs in right ventricular (RV) myocardium from infants with idiopathic tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, without a 22q11.2 deletion), and found 61 microRNAs to be significantly changed in expression in myocardium from children with TOF compared to normally developing comparison subjects (O’Brien et al. 2012). Predicted targets of microRNAs with altered expression were enriched for gene networks that regulate cardiac development. We previously derived a list of 229 genes known to be critical to heart development, and found 44 had significantly changed expression in TOF myocardium relative to normally developing myocardium. These 44 genes had significant negative correlations with 33 microRNAs, each of which also had significantly changed expression. Here, we focus on miR-421, as it is significantly upregulated in RV tissue from infants with TOF; is predicted to interact with multiple members of cardiovascular regulatory pathways; and has been shown to regulate cell proliferation. We knocked down, and over expressed miR-421 in primary cells derived from the RV of infants with TOF, and infants with normally developing hearts, respectively. We found a significant inverse correlation between the expression of miR-421 and SOX4, a key regulator of the Notch pathway, which has been shown to be important for the cardiac outflow track. These findings suggest that the dysregulation of miR-421 warrants further investigation as a potential contributor to tetralogy of Fallot. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetralogy of Fallot (TOF); cardiac development; microRNA; miRNA; miR-421; SOX4; Notch signaling tetralogy of Fallot (TOF); cardiac development; microRNA; miRNA; miR-421; SOX4; Notch signaling

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bittel, D.C.; Kibiryeva, N.; Marshall, J.A.; O'Brien, J.E., Jr. MicroRNA-421 Dysregulation is Associated with Tetralogy of Fallot. Cells 2014, 3, 713-723.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cells EISSN 2073-4409 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top