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Review

Sex Hormones, Growth Hormone, and the Cornea

1
Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
2
Dean McGee Eye Institute, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
3
North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
5
Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St., Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Academic Editor: Leonardo Mastropasqua
Cells 2022, 11(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11020224
Received: 13 December 2021 / Revised: 3 January 2022 / Accepted: 7 January 2022 / Published: 11 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Cellular Pathology)
The growth and maintenance of nearly every tissue in the body is influenced by systemic hormones during embryonic development through puberty and into adulthood. Of the ~130 different hormones expressed in the human body, steroid hormones and peptide hormones are highly abundant in circulation and are known to regulate anabolic processes and wound healing in a tissue-dependent manner. Of interest, differential levels of sex hormones have been associated with ocular pathologies, including dry eye disease and keratoconus. In this review, we discuss key studies that have revealed a role for androgens and estrogens in the cornea with focus on ocular surface homeostasis, wound healing, and stromal thickness. We also review studies of human growth hormone and insulin growth factor-1 in influencing ocular growth and epithelial regeneration. While it is unclear if endogenous hormones contribute to differential corneal wound healing in common animal models, the abundance of evidence suggests that systemic hormone levels, as a function of age, should be considered as an experimental variable in studies of corneal health and disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: cornea; estrogen; estradiol; growth hormone; insulin growth factor-1; wound healing cornea; estrogen; estradiol; growth hormone; insulin growth factor-1; wound healing
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MDPI and ACS Style

McKay, T.B.; Priyadarsini, S.; Karamichos, D. Sex Hormones, Growth Hormone, and the Cornea. Cells 2022, 11, 224. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11020224

AMA Style

McKay TB, Priyadarsini S, Karamichos D. Sex Hormones, Growth Hormone, and the Cornea. Cells. 2022; 11(2):224. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11020224

Chicago/Turabian Style

McKay, Tina B., Shrestha Priyadarsini, and Dimitrios Karamichos. 2022. "Sex Hormones, Growth Hormone, and the Cornea" Cells 11, no. 2: 224. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11020224

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