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Agronomy 2019, 9(3), 153;

Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Plant during Growth Cycle

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima Street 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
PDF [599 KB, uploaded 23 March 2019]


It is important to identify the growth stage at which the plant has the maximum antioxidant properties for the production of bioactive compounds from crops or agricultural by-products or for forage as a possible source of antioxidants in livestock. Therefore, we investigated the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of the aerial part of soybean at seven stages classified as vegetative stages (V5 and V6) and reproductive stages (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5). Aqueous-methanol extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), antioxidant activity as determined by photochemiluminescence assay (PCL-ACL), Fe2+ chelating ability, and antiradical activity against DPPH. The extracts with the highest TPC content were obtained at stages V6 and R5. The phenolic compounds profile, as determined by DAD-HPLC, was characterized by 19 compounds, that differed significantly by growth stage (p < 0.05). Antioxidant tests showed significant differences among stages (p < 0.05). The lowest TEAC value was found for the R2 stage and the highest values for the R3 and R1 stages. FRAP values ranged from 623 to 780 μmol Fe2+/g extract. PCL-ACL values ranged from 516 to 560 μmol Trolox eq./g extract; Fe2+ chelation ability ranged from 36.5 to 51.7%. The highest antiradical activity against DPPH was found in the extract from the V5 stage, which had the lowest EC50 value. The extracts of soybean plant can be used in pharmacy for the production of nutraceuticals by virtue of their good antioxidant activity and content of flavonols and other bioactive constituents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Glycine max; morphological stage; antioxidant activity; phenolics Glycine max; morphological stage; antioxidant activity; phenolics

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Peiretti, P.G.; Karamać, M.; Janiak, M.; Longato, E.; Meineri, G.; Amarowicz, R.; Gai, F. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Plant during Growth Cycle. Agronomy 2019, 9, 153.

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