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Open AccessArticle

Long-Term Mineral Fertilization Improved the Grain Yield and Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Changing Soil P Fractions in Ferralic Cambisol

1
National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land; Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
2
National Engineering and Technology Research Centre for Red Soil Improvement; Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil, Nanchang 331717, China
3
National Observation Station of Qiyang Agri-ecology System; Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qiyang 426182, China
4
Institute of Soil, Fertilizer and Agricultural Water Conservation, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China
5
Key Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Radionuclides, Pollution Control and Resources, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
6
Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry (A & F) University, Yangling, 712100, China
7
College of Agriculture, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Waqas Ahmed and Liu Kailou contributed equally to this work.
Agronomy 2019, 9(12), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9120784
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Plant Nutrition)
Elevated mineral fertilization may change the composition and increase the availability of soil phosphorus (P) in subtropical paddy soils and thus affect long-term plant growth. However, an understanding of the response of soil P fractions to long-term nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) additions remains elusive. This study aimed to explore the responses of soil P-fractions and their mobility to different long-term chemical fertilization rates under a double rice cropping system. The rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the low NPK treatment (LNPK) were 90, 45, and 75 kg ha−1 year−1, respectively, and in the high NPK treatment (HNPK), they were 180, 90, and 150 kg ha−1 year−1, respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of soil organic matter (SOM), total P, Olsen P, total N, and mineral N were remarkably increased under HNPK by 17.46%, 162.66%, 721.16%, 104.42%, and 414.46%, respectively, compared with those under control (CT). Compared to the CT P fractions, HNPK increased the labile P fractions (i.e., NaHCO3-Pi and NaHCO3-Po) by 322.25% and 83.53% and the moderately labile P fractions (i.e., NaOH-Pi, NaOH-Po and HCl. dil. Pi) by 163.54%, 183.78%, and 3167.25% respectively, while the non-labile P was decreased by the HNPK addition. P uptake and grain yield were increased by LNPK and HNPK by 10.02% and 35.20%, respectively, compared with CT. P use efficiency indices were also higher under HNPK than under LNPK. There was a strong positive relationship between grain yield and P use efficiency (R2 = 0.97). A redundancy analysis (RDA) showed a strong correlation between soil chemical properties and the labile and moderately labile P pools. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that SOM, mineral N, and available P strongly control the labile P pool. In conclusion, NPK additions under the paddy soils significantly influences the soil P fractions. The soil P dynamics and the mechanisms governing the interactions between plants and soil nutrients are clearly explained in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: P fractions; grain yield; P use efficiency; SEM pathways; mineral fertilization P fractions; grain yield; P use efficiency; SEM pathways; mineral fertilization
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Ahmed, W.; Liu, K.; Qaswar, M.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Ali, S.; Mehmood, S.; Ammar Asghar, R.M.; Mahmood, M.; Zhang, H. Long-Term Mineral Fertilization Improved the Grain Yield and Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Changing Soil P Fractions in Ferralic Cambisol. Agronomy 2019, 9, 784.

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